Fundamentals of Enzymatic Processes

  • R. Navanietha Krishnaraj
  • Aditi David
  • Rajesh K. Sani
Chapter

Abstract

A basic and clear understanding about enzymes is essential for the readers before they begin to learn about the extremozymes (enzymes in extreme conditions). The chapter begins with the basic concepts of enzymes, roles of enzymes in biological systems, components of enzymes, detailed list of applications of the enzymes and the history of enzymology. The section on specificity of enzymes explains five different types of specificity namely Absolute Substrate specificity, Broad specificity (Group specificity), Bond specificity (Relative specificity), Stereochemical specificity and Reaction specificity. Specificity is the key characteristic of the enzyme and has crucial role in terms of selectivity and catalytic activity of the enzyme. The chapter covers the different classification methods of enzymes and enzyme nomenclature. The chapter gives a clear explanation about the mechanisms of enzyme with special emphasis on Lock and Key Theory and Induced Fit Hypothesis. Different units of enzyme activity (Katal, IU, Turnover number), different models of enzyme kinetics, types of enzymes inhibition and different strategies for immobilization of enzymes are addressed. Finally, the chapter describes the various applications of extremozymes.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Navanietha Krishnaraj
    • 1
  • Aditi David
    • 1
  • Rajesh K. Sani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringSouth Dakota School of Mines and TechnologyRapid CityUSA

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