The book’s strategy and content will be introduced. Over the last 40 years, chaos theory has had a huge impact on science and philosophy. This is evidenced by the astonishing volume of chaos-related publications; even a cursory survey shows that chaos has been detected virtually everywhere, from cardiac rhythms to Joyce’s Ulysses (e.g. Kellert, 2008). Given the high export appeal of chaos theory, it is surprising that there are fundamental aspects of the field that still remain poorly understood and, in some cases, permanently debated.