Receptor-Cyclic Nucleotide Microdomains in the Heart
Cyclic nucleotides 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphates (cGMP) are important second messengers which regulate cardiac function and disease by acting in spatially separated subcellular microdomains. Function of these microdomains includes but is not limited to the modulation of calcium cycling, excitation-contraction coupling, and cardiac hypertrophy. In recent years, visualization of local compartmentalized cAMP and cGMP dynamics became possible due to rapid development of optical and nonoptical imaging techniques. In this chapter, we will briefly review these state-of-the-art biophysical methods and available fluorescent biosensors which can be used to understand microdomain-specific signaling and its involvement in cardiovascular function and disease.
KeywordscAMP cGMP Biosensors FRET Microdomain SICM
3′,5′-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Cyan fluorescent protein
3′,5′-Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
Förster resonance energy transfer
Green fluorescent protein
Scanning ion conductance microscopy
Yellow fluorescent protein
The work in authors’ laboratory is supported by the grants from the German Research Foundation (“Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft” grants NI 1301/1, NI 1301/2, FOR 2060) and by the Gertraud und Heinz-Rose Stiftung.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest Statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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