Hepatitis D Virus

  • Raymundo Paraná
  • Maria Isabel SchinoniEmail author
  • Mauricio de Souza Campos


The hepatitis D virus (HDV) was described in 1977, and it is considered the most pathogenic among all hepatotropic viruses. HDV infection occurs worldwide, but highly endemic areas have been well documented in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The highest prevalence of HDV in Latin America is in the Western Amazon Basin region, including Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia. Recent studies have demonstrated that HDV infection continues to be an important health issue in these countries and that the implementation of the HBV vaccination had little or no impact on the spread of HDV. This observation indicates that HDV has not yet disappeared from HBV hyperendemic areas, reminding us that it is far from being a vanishing disease in these areas. Chronic HBV/HDV coinfection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis, so it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating virus–host interplay and pathogenesis. New approaches in the molecular biology and life cycle of both viruses are allowing the development of more efficacious drugs to treat coinfections.


Hepatitis D Latin America Epidemiology Hepatotropic virus 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymundo Paraná
    • 1
  • Maria Isabel Schinoni
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mauricio de Souza Campos
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of the Federal University of Bahia-Bra\l and researcher of Hepatology Center of the University Hospital Professor Edgar SantosFederal University of BahiaSalvadorBrazil

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