Skip to main content

Intersection of Trauma and Identity

Abstract

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have made major advances toward equality in recent years. However, they continue to encounter victimization at alarming rates. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the intersection of trauma and identity among LGBT individuals. First, we review criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and then discuss how current conceptualizations of trauma overlook associations between non-traumatic events and PTSD-like disorder. Next, we discuss minority stress, the developmental impact of homophobia and transphobia, and the connection between PTSD and traumatic and non-traumatic events. Finally, we conclude with a case example to illustrate the concepts discussed in this chapter.

Keywords

  • Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)
  • PTSD
  • Trauma
  • Stressor criterion
  • Victimization
  • Prejudice and discrimination

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-54509-7_1
  • Chapter length: 12 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-54509-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.1
Fig. 1.2
Fig. 1.3

References

  1. Carroll A, Itaborahy LP. State-sponsored homophobia: a world survey of laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition of same-sex love. 10th ed. Geneva: ILGA; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Cole SW. Social threat, personal identity, and physical health in closeted gay men. In: Omoto AM, Kurtzman HM, editors. Sexual orientation and mental health: examining identity and development in gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1996. p. 245–67.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Balsam KF, Mohr JJ. Adaptation to sexual orientation stigma: a comparison of bisexual and lesbian/gay adults. J Couns Psychol. 2007;54(3):306–19.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity. 2011. [cited 2016 Jan 13]. Report No.: A/HRD/19/41.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Barrett DC, Pollack LM. Whose gay community? Social class, sexual self-expression, and gay community involvement. Sociol Q. 2005;46(3):437–56.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Dudley Jr RG. Being black and lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. J Gay Lesbian Ment Health. 2013;17(2):183–95.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Follins LD, Walker JJ, Lewis MK. Resilience in black lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals: a critical review of the literature. J Gay Lesbian Ment Health. 2014;18(2):190–212.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Fredriksen-Goldsen KI, Kim HJ, Barkan SE. Disability among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: disparities in prevalence and risk. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(1):e16–21.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Martin JI, D’Augelli AR. Timed lives: cohort and period effects in research on sexual orientation and gender identity. In: Meezan W, Martin JI, editors. Handbook of research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. New York: Routledge; 2009. p. 190–207.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Meyer IH. Identity, stress, and resilience in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals of color. Couns Psychol. 2010;38(3):442–54.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Thing J. Gay, Mexican and immigrant: intersecting identities among gay men in Los Angeles. Social Identities. 2010;16(6):809–31.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Dubé EM, Savin-Williams RC, Diamond LM. Intimacy development, gender, and ethnicity among sexual-minority youths. In: D’Augelli AR, editor. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press; 2001. p. 129–52.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Reisner SL, Bailey Z, Sevelius J. Racial/ethnic disparities in history of incarceration, experiences of victimization, and associated health indicators among transgender women in the US. Women Health. 2014;54(8):750–67.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Straussner SLA, Calnan AJ. Trauma through the life cycle: a review of current literature. Clin Soc Work J. 2014;42(4):323–35.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Breslau N. The epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and other posttrauma disorders. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2009;10(3):198–210.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Breslau N, Davis GC, Andreski P, Peterson E. Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48(3):216–22.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the national comorbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(12):1048–60.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593–602.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Pietrzak RH, Goldstein RB, Southwick SM, Grant BF. Prevalence and Axis 1 comorbidity of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder in the United States: results from wave 2 of the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Anxiety Disord. 2011;25(3):456–65.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. US Department of Veteran Affairs. Title. Washington, DC; 2015. [cited 2016 Jan 13]. Available from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/diagnostic_criteria_dsm-5.asp.

  22. Alessi EJ. Posttraumatic stress disorder and sexual orientation: an examination of life-threatening and non-life-threatening events. Dissertation, New York University; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Alessi EJ, Meyer IH, Martin JI. PTSD and sexual orientation: an examination of criterion A1 and non-criterion A1 events. Psychol Trauma. 2013;5(2):149–57.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Friedman MJ. Finalizing PTSD in DSM-5: getting here from there and where to go next. J Trauma Stress. 2013;26(5):548–56.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Spitzer RL, First MB, Wakefield JC. Saving PTSD from itself in DSM-V. J Anxiety Disord. 2007;21(2):223–41.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Carlson EB, Dalenberg C. A conceptual framework for the impact of traumatic experiences. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2000;1(1):4–28.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  28. Gold SD, Marx BP, Soler-Baillo JM, Sloan DM. Is life stress more traumatic than traumatic stress? J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19(6):687–98.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Long ME, Elhai JD, Schweinle A, Gray MJ, Grubaugh AL, Frueh BC. Differences in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic rates and symptom severity between criterion A1 and non-criterion A1 stressors. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22(7):1255–63.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  30. Roberts AL, Dohrenwend BP, Aiello AE, Wright RJ, Maercker A, Galea S, Koenen KC. The stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder: does it matter? J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73(2):e264–70.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. Van Hooff M, McFarlane AC, Baur J, Abraham M, Barnes DJ. The stressor criterion-A1 and PTSD: a matter of opinion? J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(1):77–86.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  32. Brewin CR, Lanius RA, Novac A, Schnyder U, Galea S. Reformulating PTSD for DSM-V: life after criterion a. J Trauma Stress. 2009;22(5):366–73.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  33. McNally RJ. Progress and controversy in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder. Annu Rev Psychol. 2003;54:229–52.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. Bryant-Davis T, Ocampo C. Racist incident-based trauma. Counsel Psychologist. 2005;33(4):479–500.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Meyer IH. Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychol Bull. 2003;129(5):674–97.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  36. Bockting WO, Miner MH, Swinburne Romine RE, Hamilton A, Coleman E. Stigma, mental health, and resilience in an online sample of the US transgender population. Am J Public Health Res. 2013;103(5):943–51.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  37. Hendricks ML, Testa RJ. A conceptual framework for clinical work with transgender and gender nonconforming clients: an adaptation of the minority stress model. Prof Psychol Res Pr. 2012;43(5):460–7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  38. Cooley CH. Human nature and the social order. New York: Schocken Books; 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Goffman E. Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1963.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Martin AD, Hetrick ES. The stigmatization of the gay and lesbian adolescent. J Homosex. 1988;15(1–2):163–83.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. Alessi EJ. A framework for incorporating minority stress theory into treatment with sexual minority clients. J Gay Lesbian Ment Health. 2014;18(1):47–66.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  42. Davies D. Towards a model of gay affirmative therapy. In: Davies D, Neal C, editors. Pink therapy: a guide for counsellors and therapists working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients. Buckingham: Open University Press; 1996. p. 24–40.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Huebner DM, Davis MC. Perceived antigay discrimination and physical health outcomes. Health Psychol. 2007;26(5):627–34.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. Lewis RJ, Derlega VJ, Clarke EG, Kuang JC. Stigma consciousness, social constraints, and lesbian well-being. J Couns Psychol. 2006;53(1):48–56.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  45. Meyer IH. Minority stress and mental health in gay men. J Health Soc Behav. 1995;36(1):38–56.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  46. Gamarel KE, Reisner SL, Laurenceau JP, Nemoto T, Operario D. Gender minority stress, mental health, and relationship quality: a dyadic investigation of transgender women and their cisgender male partners. J Fam Psychol. 2014;28(4):437–47.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  47. Herek GM. Beyond “homophobia”: thinking about sexual prejudice and stigma in the twenty-first century. Sex Res Social Policy. 2004;1(2):6–24.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  48. Frost DM, Meyer IH. Internalized homophobia and relationship quality among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. J Couns Psychol. 2009;56(1):97–109.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  49. Gold SD, Feinstein BA, Skidmore WC, Marx BP. Childhood physical abuse, internalized homophobia, and experiential avoidance among lesbians and gay men. Psychol Trauma. 2011;3(1):50–60.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  50. Gold SD. Dickstein, Marx BP, Lexington JM. Psychological outcomes among lesbian sexual assault survivors: an examination of the roles of internalized homophobia and experiential avoidance. Psychol Women Q. 2009;33(1):54–66.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  51. Gold SD, Marx BP, Lexington JM. Gay male sexual assault survivors: the relations among internalized homophobia, experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45(3):549–62.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  52. Fredriksen-Goldsen KI, Cook-Daniels L, Kim HJ, Erosheva EA, Emlet CA, Hoy-Ellis CP, Goldsen J, Muraco A. Physical and mental health of transgender older adults: an at-risk and underserved population. Gerontologist. 2014;54(3):488–500.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  53. Pachankis JE. The psychological implications of concealing a stigma: a cognitive-affective-behavioral model. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(2):328–45.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  54. Pachankis JE, Cochran SD, Mays VM. The mental health of sexual minority adults in and out of the closet: a population-based study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2015;83(5):890–901.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  55. Almeida J, Johnson RM, Corliss HL, Molnar BE, Azrael D. Emotional distress among LGBT youth: the influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. J Youth Adolesc. 2009;38(7):1001–14.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  56. Toomey RB, Ryan C, Diaz RM, Card NA, Russell ST. Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: school victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Dev Psychol. 2010;46(6):1580–9.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  57. D’Augelli AR, Grossman AH, Starks MT. Childhood gender atypicality, victimization, and PTSD among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21(11):1462–82.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  58. Dragowski EA, Halkitis PN, Grossman AH, D’Augelli AR. Sexual orientation victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv. 2011;23(2):226–49.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  59. Bostwick WB, Boyd CJ, Hughes TL, West BT, McCabe SE. Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2014;84(1):35–45.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  60. Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D’Augelli AR, Brent DA. Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. J Adolesc Health. 2011;49(2):115–23.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  61. Marshal MP, Dermody SS, Cheong J, Burton CM, Friedman MS, Aranda F, Hughes TL. Trajectories of depressive symptoms and suicidality among heterosexual and sexual minority youth. J Youth Adolesc. 2013;42(8):1243–56.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  62. Bränström R, Hatzenbuehler ML, Pachankis JE. Sexual orientation disparities in physical health: age and gender effects in a population-based study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016;51(2):289–301. Epub 2015 Aug 23. PubMed.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  63. Sherin JE, Nemeroff CB. Post-traumatic stress disorder: the neurobiological impact of psychological trauma. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(3):263–78.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Nemeroff CB. Neurobiological consequences of childhood trauma. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(Suppl 1):118–28.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Roberts AL, Austin SB, Corliss HL, Vandermorris AK, Koenen KC. Pervasive trauma exposure among US sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(12):2433–41.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  66. Balsam KF, Rothblum ED, Beauchaine TP. Victimization over the life span: a comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005;73(3):477–87.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  67. Xu Y, Zheng Y. Does sexual orientation precede childhood sexual abuse? Childhood gender nonconformity as a risk factor and instrumental variable analysis. Sex Abuse. Epub 2015 Nov 29. pii: 1079063215618378. PubMed.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Cloitre M, Courtois CA, Charuvastra A, Carapezza R, Stolbach BC, Green BL. Treatment of complex PTSD: results of the ISTSS expert clinician survey on best practices. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24(6):615–27.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  69. Herman JL. Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. J Trauma Stress. 1992;5(3):377–91.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  70. Pelcovitz D, van der Kolk B, Roth S, Mandel F, Kaplan S, Resick P. Development of a criteria set and a structured interview of disorders of extreme stress. J Trauma Stress. 1997;10(1):3–16.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Roth S, Newman E, Pelcovitz D, van der Kolk B, Mandel FS. Complex PTSD in victims exposed to sexual and physical abuse: results from the DSM-IV field trial for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 1997;10(4):539–55.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Alessi EJ, Kahn S, Chatterji S. ‘The darkest times of my life’: recollections of child abuse among forced migrants persecuted because of their sexual orientation and gender identity. Child Abuse Negl. 2016;51(1):93–105.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  73. Shidlo A, Ahola J. Mental health challenges of LGBT forced migrants. Forced Migr Rev. 2013;42:9–11.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Meyer IH, Schwartz S, Frost DM. Social patterning of stress and coping: does disadvantaged social statuses confer more stress and fewer coping resources? Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(3):368–79.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  75. Breslau N, Chilcoat HD, Kessler RC, Davis GC. Previous exposure to trauma and PTSD effects of subsequent trauma: results from the Detroit area survey of trauma. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156(6):902–7.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  76. Breslau N, Peterson EL, Schultz LR. A second look at prior trauma and the posttraumatic stress disorder effects of subsequent trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(4):431–7.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  77. Breslau N, Davis GC. Posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults: risk factors for chronicity. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149(5):671–5.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  78. Bromet E, Sonnega A, Kessler RC. Risk factors for DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(4):353–61.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  79. Brewin CR, Andrews B, Valentine JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68(5):748–66.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  80. Galea S, Ahern J, Tracy M, Hubbard A, Cerda M, Goldmann E, et al. Longitudinal determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder in a population-based cohort study. Epidemiology. 2008;19(1):47–54.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  81. Yehuda R, McFarlane AC. Conflict between current knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder and its original conceptual basis. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(12):1705–13.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  82. Gilman SE, Cochran SD, Mays VM, Hughes M, Ostrow D, Kessler RC. Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the national comorbidity survey. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(6):933–9.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  83. Lehavot K, Simpson TL. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among sexual minority and heterosexual women veterans. J Couns Psychol. 2014;61(3):392–403.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  84. Stotzer RL. Violence against transgender people: a review of United States data. Aggress Violent Behav. 2009;14(3):170–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  85. Shipherd JC, Maguen S, Skidmore WC, Abramovtiz SM. Potentially traumatic events in a transgender sample: frequency and associated symptoms. Traumatol. 2011;17(2):56–67.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  86. U.S. Department of Justice- Federal Bureau of Investigation. Hate crime statistics, 2014. Washington, DC; 2015 Nov 16. [cited 2015 Dec 11]. Available from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/hate-crime/2014/resource-pages/hate-crime-2014-_summary.

  87. Herek GM. Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: prevalence estimates from a national probability sample. J Interpers Violence. 2009;24(1):54–74.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  88. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and HIV-affected hate violence in 2014. New York: New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project, Inc.; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Martin JI, Alessi EJ. Stressful events, avoidance coping, and unprotected anal sex among gay and bisexual men. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2010;80(3):293–301.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  90. Meyer D. An intersectional analysis of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people’s evaluations of anti-queer violence. Gend Soc. 2012;26(6):849–73.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  91. Collaborative WWR. A fabulous attitude: low income lgbtgnc people surviving & thriving on love, shelter & knowledge. New York: Queers for Economic Justice; 2010. 76 p.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Balsam KF, Szymanski DM. Relationship quality and domestic violence in women’s same-sex relationships: the role of minority stress. Psychol Women Q. 2005;29(3):258–69.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  93. Burke LK, Follingstad DR. Violence in lesbian and gay relationships: theory, prevalence, and correlational factors. Clin Psychol Rev. 1999;19(5):487–512.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  94. Goldberg NG, Meyer IH. Sexual orientation disparities in history of intimate partner violence results from the California health interview survey. J Interpers Violence. 2013;28(5):1109–18.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  95. Stiles-Shileds C, Carroll RA. Same-sex domestic violence: prevalence, unique aspects, and clinical implications. J Sex Marital Ther. 2015;41(6):636–48.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  96. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and HIV-affected intimate partner violence in 2011. New York: New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project, Inc.; 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Martin JI, Alessi EJ. Victimization in a nationwide sample of gay and bisexual men. J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv. 2012;24(3):260–73.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  98. Otis MD, Skinner WF. The prevalence of victimization and its effect on mental well-being among lesbian and gay people. J Homosex. 1996;30(3):93–121.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  99. Bradford J, Reisner SL, Honnold JA, Xavier J. Experiences of transgender-related discrimination and implications for health: results from the Virginia transgender health initiative study. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1820–9.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  100. Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Harrison J, Herman JL, Keisling M. Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force; 2011. p. 1–222.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Helms JE, Nicolas G, Green CE. Racism and ethnoviolence as trauma: enhancing professional training. Traumatol. 2010;16(4):53–62.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  102. Loo CM, Fairbank JA, Scurfield RM, Ruch LO, King DW, Adams LJ, Chemtob CM. Measuring exposure to racism: development and validation of a race-related stressor scale (RRSS) for Asian American Vietnam veterans. Psychol Assess. 2001;13(4):503–20.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  103. Waller RJ. Application of the kindling hypothesis to the long-term effects of racism. Soc Work Ment Health. 2003;1(3):81–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  104. Root MP. Reconstructing the impact of trauma on personality development: a feminist perspective. In: Brown LS, Ballou MB, editors. Personality and psychopathology: feminist reappraisals. New York: Guilford; 1992. p. 229–66.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Brown LS. Sexuality, lies, and loss: lesbian, gay, and bisexual perspectives on trauma. J Trauma Pract. 2003;2(2):55–68.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  106. Janoff-Bulman R. Shattered assumptions. New York: Free Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Brooks VR. Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington: Lexington Books; 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Mascher J. Surviving trauma and anxiety as a result of events of discrimination. In: Whitman JS, Boyd CJ, editors. The therapist’s notebook for lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients: homework, handouts, and activities for use in psychotherapy. New York: Haworth Clinical Practice Press; 2003. p. 60–8.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Szymanski DM, Balsam KF. Insidious trauma: examining the relationship between heterosexism and lesbians’ PTSD symptoms. Traumatol. 2011;17(2):4–13.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  110. Alessi EJ, Martin JI, Gyamerah A, Meyer IH. Prejudice events and traumatic stress among heterosexuals and lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma. 2013;22(5):510–26.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Edward J. Alessi .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Alessi, E.J., Martin, J.I. (2017). Intersection of Trauma and Identity. In: Eckstrand, K., Potter, J. (eds) Trauma, Resilience, and Health Promotion in LGBT Patients. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54509-7_1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54509-7_1

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-54507-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-54509-7

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)