On the Move—or Moving On? Reimagining the Future of Travel

  • Malek Al-ChalabiEmail author
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


With rising energy demand and an increase in global population, facilitating a sustainable energy transition in cities is of interest to many. The focus of this chapter is to illustrate and analyse the role that transport can play in facilitating and enabling change. In order to do so, this chapter is compromised of the following four parts: (1) an illustrative description of the transport challenge, which includes describing the impacts that transport has on society and the environment, (2) the drivers and the thinking behind transport’s high-carbon use, (3) an alternative framing to the transport debate will be introduced alongside ‘next’ practices for the future, and (4) the points made in the previous three parts will be further illustrated through the use of relevant international case studies. Case studies include Bogota, Colombia, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and Montreal, Canada, from a supply-side and demand-side perspective. A discussion with implications for the future is provided alongside a conclusion.



The author would like to thank the reviewers for their constructive comments. He would also like to thank his family and friends for their support.


  1. Al-Chalabi M (2015) Vertical farming: Skyscraper sustainability? Sustain Cities Soc 18:74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldred R, Jungnickel K (2014) Why culture matters for transport policy: the case of cycling in the UK. J Transp Geogr 34:78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Mehairi JM (1995) Some aspects of environmental problems caused by transport in Dubai: a geographical perspective. In: Sucharov LJ (ed) Urban transport and the environment for the 21st century. Computational Mechanics, SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
  4. Achkhanian M (2016) 25% of all transportation in Dubai will be smart and driverless by 2030: Mohammed Bin Rashid. Gulf news. 25 April 2016.
  5. Bachand-Marleau J, Lee B, El-Geneidy A (2012) Better understanding of factors influencing likelihood of using shared bicycle systems and frequency of use. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2314:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banister D (2008) The sustainable mobility paradigm. Transp Policy 15:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banister D, Givoni M, Macmillen J, Schwanen T (2013) Thinking change and changing thinking. In: Givoni M, Banister D (eds) Moving towards low carbon mobility. Edward Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  8. Bixi (2016) We are Bixi—Montreal.
  9. Bridge G, Bouzarovski S, Bradshaw M, Eyre N (2013) Geographies of energy transition: space, place and the low-carbon economy. Energy Policy 53:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell JF (1992) Selecting routes to minimize urban travel time. Transp Res Part B Methodol 26(4):261–274MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carrion C, Levinson D (2012) Value of travel time reliability: a review of current evidence. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 46(4):720–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CBC News (2014) Bixi owes $50 M, files for bankruptcy protection. 21 Jan 2014.
  13. CBC News (2015) Montreal’s Bixi service records surplus for first time. 09 June 2015.
  14. CBC News (2016) Montreal’s Bixi continues to pursue global domination. 16 Apr 2016.
  15. Cervero R (2005) Progressive transport and the poor: Bogota’s bold steps forward. Access Magaz 1(27):24Google Scholar
  16. Cervero R, Sarmiento OL, Jacoby E, Gomez LF, Neiman A (2009) Influences of built environments on walking and cycling: lessons from Bogotá. Int J Sustain Transp 3(4):2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. City of Montreal (2013) Plan de Réduction des Émissions de Gaz à Effet de Serre dans la Collectivité montréalaise 2013–2020. http://ville.Montreal.QC.CA/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/ENVIRO_FR/MEDIA/DOCUMENTS/PLAN_COLLECTIVITE_2013–2020_VF.PDF
  18. Despacio A (2008) Bogota: edging back from the brink. Sustain Transp 20:14–18Google Scholar
  19. Ebrahim Z, Inderwildi O, King David (2014) Macroeconomic impacts of oil price volatility: mitigation and resilience. Front Energy 8(1):9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Emirates 24/7 News (2015) Revealed: how many used Dubai Metro in 2014. 24 Jan 2015.
  21. Ettema D, Verschuren L (2007) Multitasking and value of travel time savings. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2010:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Everington J (2013) UAE urban population will grow to 7.9 m by 2020, says United Nations. The National.–9m-by-2020-says-united-nations
  23. Faghih-Imani A, Eluru N, El-Geneidy AM, Rabbat M, Haq U (2014) How land-use and urban form impact bicycle flows: evidence from the bicycle-sharing system (BIXI) in Montreal. J Transp Geogr 41:306–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fishman E, Washington S, Haworth N (2013) Bike share: a synthesis of the literature. Transp Rev 33(2):148–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fishman E, Washington S, Haworth N (2015) Bikeshare’s impact on active travel: evidence from the United States, Great Britain, and Australia. J Transp Health 2(2):135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fransen K, Neutens T, Farber S, De Mayer P, Deruyter G, Witlox F (2015) Identifying public transport gaps using time-dependent accessibility levels. J Transp Geogr 48:176–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fuller D, Gauvin L, Kestens Y, Daniel M, Fournier M, Morency P, Drouin L (2011) Use of a new public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. Am J Prevent Med 41(1):80–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fuller D, Gauvin L, Kestens Y, Morency P, Drouin L (2013) The potential modal shift and health benefits of implementing a public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 10(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geels FW (2005) The dynamics of transitions in socio-technical systems: a multi-level analysis of the transition pathway from horse-drawn carriages to automobiles (1860–1930). Technol Anal Strat Manag 17(4):445–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Giddens A (2009) The politics of climate change. Polity. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Givoni M, Banister D (2012) Speed: the less important element of the high-speed train. J Transp Geogr 22:306–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Givoni M, Banister D (eds) (2013a) Moving towards low carbon mobility. Edward Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  33. Givoni M, Banister D (2013b) Mobility, transport and carbon. In: Givoni M, Banister D (eds) Moving towards low carbon mobility. Edward Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Givoni M, Macmillen J, Banister D, Feitelson E (2013) From policy measures to policy packages. Transp Rev 33(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gulf News (2015) 10am start for Dubai Metro on Fridays. Gulf news. 27 Sept 2015.
  36. Guzman L, de la Hoz D, Circella G (2015) Evaluation of synergies from transportation policy packages using a social welfare maximization approach: a case study for Madrid, Spain. Case Stud Transp Policy 3(1):99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hickman R, Saxena S, Banister D, Ashiru Ol (2012) Examining transport futures with scenario analysis and MCA. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 46(3):560–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kenworthy JR (2006) The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development. Environ Urban 18(1):67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kenyon S, Lyons G (2003) The value of integrated multimodal traveller information and its potential contribution to modal change. Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav 6(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Khaleej Times (2012) Dubai in guinness for longest driverless metro. 22 Feb 2012.
  41. Kim K-H, Kabir E, Kabir S (2015) A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter. Environ Int 74:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Larsen J, El-Geneidy A (2011) A travel behavior analysis of urban cycling facilities in Montréal, Canada. Transp Res Part D Trans Environ 16(2):172–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lucas K (2006) Providing transport for social inclusion within a framework for environmental justice in the UK. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 40(10):801–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lyons G, Urry J (2005) Travel time use in the information age. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 39(2–3):257–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Markovich J (2013) Accessibility, equity, and transport. In: Givoni M, Banister D (eds) Moving towards low carbon mobility. Edward Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  46. Marshall S (2001) The challenge of sustainable transport. In: Layard A, Davoudi S, Batty S (eds) Planning for a sustainable future. Spon, London, pp 131–147Google Scholar
  47. Martens K (2007) Promoting bike-and-ride: the Dutch experience. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 41(4):326–338MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mátrai T, Tóth J (2016) Comparative assessment of public bike sharing systems. Transp Res Proc 14:2344–2351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. May A, Roberts M (1995) The design of integrated transport strategies. Transp Policy 2(2):97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Molina-García J, Castillo I, Queralt A, Sallis JF (2013) Bicycling to university: evaluation of a bicycle-sharing program in Spain. Health Promot Int 30:350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moriarty P, Honnery D (2008) Low-mobility: the future of transport. Futures 40(10):865–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Morris JM, Dumble PL, Wigan MR (1979) Accessibility indicators for transport planning. Transp Res Part A General 13(2):91–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nakamura K, Hayashi Y (2013) Strategies and instruments for low-carbon urban transport: an international review on trends and effects. Transp Policy 29:264–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ogilvie F, Goodman A (2012) Inequalities in usage of a public bicycle sharing scheme: socio-demographic predictors of uptake and usage of the London (UK) cycle hire scheme. Prevent Med 55(1):40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Owens S (1995) From ‘predict and provide’to ‘predict and prevent’?: pricing and planning in transport policy. Transp Policy 2(1):43–49MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pathak M, Shukla PR (2015) Co-benefits of low carbon passenger transport actions in Indian cities: case study of Ahmedabad. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ (in press – corrected proof)Google Scholar
  57. Penalosa E (2015) This is what the cities of the future will look like. New Perspect Quart 32(3):37–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Peñalosa E (2011) A city talks: learning from Bogotá’s revitalisation. Archit Design 81:90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pucher J, Buehler R, Seinen M (2011) Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 45(6):451–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rabl A, Nazelle A (2012) Benefits of shift from car to active transport. Transp Policy 19(1):121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ristovski ZD, Miljevic B, Surawski NC, Morawska L, Fong KM, Goh F, Yang IA (2012) Respiratory health effects of diesel particulate matter. Respirology 17:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Road and Transport Authority (2015) About Salik. 17 Sept 2015.
  63. Scott S, Orlikowski W (2012) Reconfiguring relations of accountability: materialization of social media in the travel sector. Account Organiz Soc 37(1):26–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shahbandari S (2014) Dubai Metro completes five successful years. Gulf news. 8 Sept 2014.
  65. Shahbandari S (2015) For every two Dubai residents, there is one car. Gulf news. 15 March 2015.
  66. Shaheen S, Guzman S, Zhang H (2010) Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia: past, present, and future. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2143:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schwanen T, Banister D, Anable J (2011) Scientific research about climate change mitigation in transport: a critical review. Transp Res Part A Policy and Pract 45(10):993–1006Google Scholar
  68. Sims R, Schaeffer R, Cruz-Núñez F, D’Agosto M, Dimitriu D, Figueroa Meza MJ, Fulton L, Kobayashi S, Lah O, McKinnon A, Newman P, Ouyang M, Schauer JJ, Sperling D, Tiwari G (2014) Transport. In: Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R, Sokona Y, Farahani E, Kadner S, Seyboth S, Adler A, Baum I, Brunner S, Eickemeier P, Kriemann B, Savolainen J, Schlömer S, von Stechow C, Zwickel T, Minx JC (eds) Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change. Contribution of working group III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  69. Smart Dubai (2016a) Mandate.
  70. Smart Dubai (2016c) Our dimensions.
  71. Smart Dubai (2016d) Initiatives bringing car sharing to Dubai.
  72. Smart Dubai (2016e) Dubai silicon oasis authority reduces costs and CO2 emissions with smart waste management system.
  73. Taylor M, Ampt E (2003) Travelling smarter down under: policies for voluntary travel behaviour change in Australia. Transp Policy 10(3):165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tønnesen A (2015) Policy packages and state engagement: comparing car-use reduction policy in two Norwegian cities. J Transp Geogr 46:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tuominen A, Tapio P, Varho V, Jarvi T, Banister D (2014) Pluralistic backcasting: integrating multiple visions with policy packages for transport climate policy. Futures 60:41–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Twaha M (2015) Dubai’s ‘Enough Distance’ radars due to open. Gulf Today. 1 July 2015.–41ec-4da5-b242-0497de5e56e2.aspx
  77. United Nations (2015) World population projected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050 (Online).
  78. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2015) Population division.
  79. Vannini P (2010) Mobile cultures: from the sociology of transportation to the study of mobilities. Sociol Compass 4(2):111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wang X, Zhou Y (2015) Deliveries to residential units: a rising form of freight transportation in the U.S. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 58:46–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weinert JX, Ma CT, Yang XM, Cherry C (2007) Electric two-wheelers in China: effect on travel behavior, mode shift, and user safety perceptions in a medium-sized city. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 1938:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Xiang Z, Magnini V, Fesenmaier D (2015) Information technology and consumer behavior in travel and tourism: insights from travel planning using the internet. J Retail Consum Serv 22:244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Transport Studies UnitSchool of Geography and the Environment, University of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations