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Cross-National Issues in Response Rates


After decades of neglecting nonprobability sampling approaches (we still have no textbook on this widespread practice), in recent years there has finally been a breakthrough in academic attention to this approach. This includes formal professional acceptance (e.g. American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) code) and also increased scientific research attention. This chapter overviews the structure and trends of research conducted on response rates between 1990 and 2015. The overview indicates – mirroring the trend in existing published work – that nonresponse is rarely treated in a comprehensive and integrative manner. The chapter also highlights those research projects where the nonresponse rate, nonresponse bias, data quality and costs are examined simultaneously, using the European Social Survey as an example.


  • American Association For Public Opinion Research (AAPOR)
  • European Social Survey (ESS)
  • Non-probability Sampling
  • Response Rate Calculation
  • Vehovar

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Fig. 6.1


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    Figures related to official statistical surveys are taken from the website of the Statistical Office of Republic of Slovenia,

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    Source Eurostat: Available May 10, 2016.

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Correspondence to Vasja Vehovar .

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Vehovar, V., Beullens, K. (2018). Cross-National Issues in Response Rates. In: Vannette, D., Krosnick, J. (eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Survey Research . Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

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