Ecological Momentary Assessment in Survey Research
The survey interview context typically occurs when respondents are at home. However, much of social life occurs outside of the home, meaning that there may be limits on the ecological validity of self-reports of things like experiences or emotional states throughout the day if these things are only reported when the respondent is at home and a substantial amount of time has passed since the focal time period. A suite of methods broadly classified as “ecological momentary assessment” or “experience sampling” are targeted at addressing this shortcoming of traditional interview methods. This chapter reviews these methods and highlights use cases where they may be particularly useful for researchers to consider.
References and Further Reading
- Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A Survey Method for Characterizing Daily Life Experience: The Day Reconstruction Method. Science, 306(5702), 1776–1780. http://doi.org/10.2307/3839780?ref=search-gateway:8cb2fab2e33d2829b6c8d8113cdb2349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shiffman, S. S., Stone, A. A., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological Momentary Assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4(1), 1–32. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stone, A. A., & Shiffman, S. S. (1994). Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in behavorial medicine. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 16(3), 199–202.Google Scholar