The Place of Leadership Development for Change Agency in Teacher Education Curricula for Diversity

Chapter

Abstract

Leadership, particularly teacher leadership, is a policy priority in many educational systems, being regarded as a key element in raising achievement. As these expectations of teacher leadership grow, the place of leadership development in teacher education is an emerging issue. Leadership development might provide the means to enable novice teachers bring about the changes in curriculum, pedagogy and ethos, necessary as schools become more diverse. In this chapter we consider how leadership development in teacher preparation programmes might contribute to the development of change agency for diversity. We begin by interrogating three commonly held assumptions about the contribution of initial teacher education to the development of a teacher. These assumptions include the view that initial teacher education is the only or main phase in a career when teachers learn; that the kind of knowledge teachers need can be transmitted during this phase; and finally, that teachers demonstrate their grasp of knowledge by applying knowledge developed elsewhere. In the next section we then turn to ‘leadership’ and identify some of the tensions within this concept. In the final section we propose three pivotal concepts of identity, agency and expertise implicit in notions of teacher leadership and argue that we need to consider these if we are to build a model of teacher education for change agency.

References

  1. Asia Society. (2015). Implementing highly effective teacher policy and practice. In International summit on the teaching professional, Banff, Canada. Paris/New York: OECD/Asia SocietyGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber, M., & Mourshed, M. (2007). How the world’s best-performing school systems come out on top, McKinsey. http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/social_sector/our_practices/education/knowledge_highlights/best_performing_school.aspx. Accessed 5 June 2015.
  3. Bass, B. M. (1991). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: An overview of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(2), 175–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beijaard, D., Meijer, P., & Verloop, N. (2004). Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(2), 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berliner, D. C. (1986). In pursuit of the expert pedagogue. Educational Researcher, 15(7), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berliner, D. C. (1994). Expertise: The wonders of exemplary performance. In J. N. Mangieri & C. C. Block (Eds.), Creating powerful thinking in teachers and students (pp. 141–186). Ft. Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  8. Berliner, D. C. (2001). Learning about and learning from expert teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(5), 463–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berliner, D. C. (2004). Describing and documenting the accomplishments of expert teachers. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 24(3), 200–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhopal, K., & Rhamie, J. (2014). Initial teacher training: Understanding ‘race,’ diversity and inclusion. Race Ethnicity and Education, 17(3), 304–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biesta, G., Priestley, M., & Robinson, S. (2015). The role of beliefs in teacher agency. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 21(6), 624–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bond, N. (2011). Preparing preservice teachers to become teacher leaders. The Educational Forum, 75(4), 280–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Britzman, D. P. (1991). Decentering discourses in teacher education: Or, the unleashing of unpopular things. Journal of Education, 173(3), 60–80.Google Scholar
  14. Buchanan, R. (2015). Teacher identity and agency in an era of accountability. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 21(6), 700–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calder, B. J. (1977). An attribution theory of leadership. In B. M. Straw & G. R. Salancik (Eds.), New directions in organizational behavior. Chicago: St. Clair.Google Scholar
  16. Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. L. (2009). Inquiry as stance: Practitioner research for the next generation. New York: Columbia University Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  17. Collins, H., & Evans, R. (2007). Rethinking expertise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cruz-Jansen, M. (2000). From our readers: Preparing pre-service teacher candidates for leadership in equity. Equity Excellence Education, 33(1), 94–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco: Francis Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2010). The new lives of teachers. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1986). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  22. Dunlap, K., & Hansen-Thomas, H. (2011). Taking the reins: Preservice teachers practicing leadership. Educational Horizons, 90(1), 21–24.Google Scholar
  23. Eraut, M. (1994). Developing professional knowledge and competence. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  24. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. The Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1013–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fitzgerald, T., & Gunter, H. M. (2008). Contesting the orthodoxy of teacher leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 11(4), 331–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Florian, L. (2015). Teacher education for inclusive education. In ESRC seminar series. Seminar 1: Teacher education for diversity, 21st March 2014, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  27. Florian, L., & Black-Hawkins, K. (2011). Exploring inclusive pedagogies. British Educational Research Journal, 37(5), 813–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Forde, C. (2014). Is gender sensitive education a useful concept for educational policy? Cultural Studies of Science Education, Special Education Feminist and Gender Studies of Science Education, 9(2), 369–376.Google Scholar
  29. Forde, C., & Morley, J. (2014). Developing pedagogies for diversity in Scottish education: The contribution of professional standards. NETLA: Online Journal of Pedagogy and Education: Special Issue 2014: Diversity in Education Teachers and Learners. http://netla.hi.is/serrit/2014/diversity_in_education/002.pdf. Accessed 24 Oct 2016.
  30. Forde, C., McPhee, A., McMahon, M., & Patrick, F. (2006). Professional reflection, development and enquiry. London: Paul Chapman.Google Scholar
  31. Forde, C., McMahon, M., & Dickson, B. (2011). Leadership development in Scotland: Next practice. Scottish Educational Review, 43(2), 55–69.Google Scholar
  32. Forster, E. M. (1997). Teacher leadership: Professional right and responsibility. Action in Teacher Education, 19(3), 82–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fullan, M. (2009). Motion leadership: The skinny on becoming change savvy. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  34. General Teaching Council Scotland. (2012). The standards for registration. Edinburgh: GTCS.Google Scholar
  35. Gronn, P. (2003). Leadership: Who needs it? School Leadership and Management, 23(3), 267–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hammerstein, K., Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., Berliner, D., Cochran-Smith, M., McDonald, M., & Zeichner, K. (2006). How teachers learn and develop. In L. Darling-Hammond & J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp. 358–389). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  37. Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, D. (2009). The fourth way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hilty, E. B. (Ed.). (2011). Teacher leadership: The ‘New’ foundations of teacher education. A reader. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  39. Hulme, M., Elliot, D., McPhee, A., & Patrick, F. (2008). Professional culture among new entrants to the teaching profession: Report to the General Teaching Council for Scotland and the Scottish Government. Glasgow: University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
  40. Hytten, K., & Warren, J. (2003). Engaging whiteness: How racial power gets reified in education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 16(1), 65–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22(3), 375–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2008). Linking leadership to student learning: The contributions of leader efficacy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 496–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leithwood, K., & Mascall, B. (2008). Collective leadership effects on student achievement. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 529–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Levin, B. B. (2003). Case studies of teacher development: An in-depth look at how thinking about pedagogy develops over time. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. MacBeath, J. (2003, January). The alphabet soup of leadership. Inform, (2), 1–7. https://www.educ.cam.ac.uk/centres/lfl/about/inform/PDFs/InForm_2.pdf. Accessed 24 Oct 2016.
  46. Main, K. (2007). Teamwork – teach me, teach me not: A case study of three Australian preservice teachers. The Australian Educational Researcher, 37(3), 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Menter, I. (2015). The three ‘D’s: Diversity, development, devolution. In ESRC seminar series. Seminar 2: Teacher development in context. 20th March 2015, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  48. Mockler, N. (2011). Beyond ‘what works’: Understanding teacher identity as a practical and political tool. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 17(5), 517–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mourshed, M., Chijioke, C., & Barber, M. (2010). How the world’s most improved school systems keep getting better. London: McKinsey.Google Scholar
  50. Quinlivan, K., & Town, S. (1999). Queer pedagogy, educational practice and lesbian and gay youth. Qualitative Studies in Education, 12(5), 509–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reeves, J., Turner, E., Morris, B., & Forde, C. (2005). Changing their minds: the social dynamics of school leaders’ learning. Cambridge Journal of Education, 35(2), 253–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. Aldershot/Hants: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  53. Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  54. Skelton, C. (2007). Gender, policy and initial teacher education. Gender and Education, 19(6), 677–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Star, S. L. (1991). The sociology of the invisible: The primacy of work in the writings of Anselm Strauss. In D. R. Maines (Ed.), Social organization and social process: Essays in honour of Anselm Strauss. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  56. Stillman, J., & Anderson, L. (2015). From accommodation to appropriation: Teaching, identity, and authorship in a tightly coupled policy context. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 21(6), 720–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Torrance, D., & Forde, C. (2016). Redefining what it means to be a teacher through professional standards: Implications for continuing teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(1), 110–126.Google Scholar
  58. Torrance, D., Forde, C., & Hamilton, T. (2015). Leading social justice … in a Scotland where everyone matters? Paper 2 of the British Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Society symposium on ‘Social Justice Matters in School Leadership and Management: Research-based illustrations from the UK’. American Educational Research Association conference, Chicago, US, 16–20 April 2015.Google Scholar
  59. van der Herijden, H. R. M. A., Geldens, J. J. M., Beijaard, D., & Popeijus, H. L. (2015). Characteristics of teachers as change agents. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 21(6), 681–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 20–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Watson, C. (2006). Narratives of practice and the construction of identity in teaching. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 12(5), 509–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Woodgate-Jones, A. (2012). The student teacher and the school community of practice: An exploration of the contribution of the legitimate peripheral participant. Educational Review, 64(2), 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zeichner, K. (2007). Accumulating knowledge across self-studies in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(1), 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations