Skip to main content

The Nature and Significance of Anthropogenic Soils

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Anthropogenic Soils

Part of the book series: Progress in Soil Science ((PROSOIL))

  • 1207 Accesses

Abstract

Anthropogenic soils (anthrosoils) are soils that have been influenced, modified or created by human activity, in contrast to soils formed by natural processes. They are found worldwide in urban and other human-impacted landscapes. Anthrosoils are formed by: (1) sealing a natural soil beneath pavement or other artificially manufactured impervious material, (2) transformation of a natural soil by human action, or (3) development of a new soil profile in parent materials created and deposited by human action.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Amundson R, Jenny H (1991) The place of humans in the state factor theory of ecosystems and their soils. Soil Sci 151:99–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bernknopf RL, Brookshire DS, Soller DR, McKee M.J, Sutter JF, Matti JC, Campbell RH (1996) Societal value of geologic maps, vol 1111. U. S. Geological Survey Circular, 53 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Bidwell OW, Hole FD (1965) Man as a factor of soil formation. Soil Sci 99:65–72

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brevik EC, Hartemink AE (2010) Early soil knowledge and the birth and development of soil science. Catena 83:23–33

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bullock P, Gregory PJ (1991) Soils in the urban environment. Blackwell Sci. Pub., Oxford, England 174 pp

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Capra GF, Ganga A, Grilli E, Vacca S, Buondonno A (2015) A review of anthropogenic soils from a worldwide perspective. J Soils Seds 15:1602–1618

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Certini G, Scalenghe R (2011) Anthropogenic soils are the golden spikes for the anthropocene. Holocene 21:1267–1274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Craul PJ (1992) Urban soil in landscape design. Wiley, New York 396 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Craul PJ (1999) Urban soils—applications and practices. Wiley, New York 366 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Crutzen PJ (2002) Geology of mankind. Nature 415:23

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Darwin C (1881) The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms with observations on their habits. John Murray, London

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Dudal R (2005) The sixth factor of soil formation. Eurasian Soil Sci 38:S60–S65

    Google Scholar 

  • Effland WR, Pouyat RV (1997) The genesis, classification, and mapping of soils in urban areas. Urban Ecosyst 1:217–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fleming AH, Drake AA, McCartan L (1994) Geologic map of the Washington West quadrangle, District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties, Maryland, and Arlington and Fairfax Counties, Virginia. USGS Geological quadrangle map GQ-1748, Scale 1:24,000

    Google Scholar 

  • Howard JL (1979) Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mine spoils derived from the Pennsylvanian Wise Formation, Buchanan County, Virginia. M. S. thesis, Department of Agronomy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 109 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Howard JL (2014) Proposal to add anthrostratigraphic and technostratigraphic units to the stratigraphic code for classification of holocene deposits. The Holocene 24:1856–1861

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howard JL, Ryzewski K, Dubay BR, Killion TW (2015) Artifact preservation and post-depositional site-formation processes in an urban setting: a geoarchaeological study of a 19th century neighborhood in Detroit, Michigan, USA. J Archaeol Sci 53:178–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IUSS (International Union of Soil Science) Working Group (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006. World Soil Resources Report 103, Food and Agriculture Organization United Nations, Rome, Italy, 145 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenny H (1941) Factors of soil formation. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Knapp CW, McCluskey, SM, Singh BK, Campbell CD, Hudson, G, Graham DW (2011) Antibiotic resistance gene abundances correlate with metal and geochemical conditions in archived Scottish soils. PLoS ONE:6

    Google Scholar 

  • Kosse AD (1980) Anthrosols: proposals for a new soil order. Agron. Abs., ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI, p 182

    Google Scholar 

  • Legget RF (1973) Cities and geology. McGraw-Hill, New York 624 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Legget RF (1974) Engineering-geological maps for urban development. In: Ferguson HF (ed) Geologic mapping for environmental purposes. Engineering Geology Case Histories no. 10, Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 19–21

    Google Scholar 

  • Leguedois S, Sere G, Auclerc A, Cortet J, Huot H, Ouvrard S, Watteau F, Schwartz C, Morel JL (2016) Modeling pedogenesis of technosols. Geoderma 262:199–212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McGill JT (1964) Growing importance of urban geology, vol 487. USGS Circular, 4 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller FP (1978) Soil survey under pressure: the Maryland experience. J Soil Water Conserv 33:104–111

    Google Scholar 

  • New York City Soil Survey Staff (2005) New York city reconnaissance soil survey. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Staten Island, NY, 52 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Nord AG, Tronner K, Mattsson E, Borg GC, Ullen I (2005) Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains. Ambio 34:256–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Renforth P, Manning DAC, Lopez-Capel E (2009) Carbonate precipitation in artificial soils as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Appl Geochem 24:1757–1764

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson GH, Porter HC, Obenshain SS (1955) The use of soil survey information in an area of rapid urban development. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 19:502–504

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenbaum MS, McMillan AA, Powell JH, Cooper AH, Culshaw MG, Northmore KJ (2003) Classification of artificial (man-made) ground. Eng Geol 69:399–409

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rossiter G, Burghardt W (2003) Classification of urban and industrial soils in the world reference base for soil resources. J Soils Seds 7:96–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seiler C, Berendonk TU (2012) Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture. Front Microbiol 3 (10 pp)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sencindiver JC (1977) Classification and genesis of minesoils. Ph. D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

    Google Scholar 

  • Shafer WM (1979) Variability of mine soils and natural soils in Southeastern Montana. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:1207–1212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Short JR, Fanning DS, McIntosh MS, Foss JE, Patterson JC (1986a) Soils of the mall in Washington, D.C. I: statistical summary of soil properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:699–705

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Short JR, Fanning DS, McIntosh MS, Foss JE, Patterson JC (1986b) Soils of the mall in Washington, D.C. II: genesis classification and mapping. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:705–710

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soil Survey Soil Staff (1975) Soil taxonomy—a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. U. S. Dept. Agric., Agricultural handbook 436, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edn. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (372 pp)

    Google Scholar 

  • Washbourne CL, Renforth P, Manning DAC (2012) Investigating carbonate precipitation in urban soils as a method for the capture and storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Sci Total Envir 431:166–175

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waters CN, Zalasiewicz JA, Williams M, Ellis MA, Snelling A (2014) A stratigraphical basis for the Anthropocene. In: Waters CW, Zalasiewicz JA, Williams M, Ellis M, Snelling A (eds) A stratigraphical basis for the anthropocene, vol 395. Geological Society of London Special Publication, pp 1–21

    Google Scholar 

  • Wayne WJ (1969) Urban geology—a need and a challenge. Proc Indiana Acad Sci 78:49–64

    Google Scholar 

  • Yaalon DH, Yaron B (1966) Framework for man-made soil changes—an outline of metapedogenesis. Soil Sci 102:272–277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Steffen M, Crutzen P (2010) The new world of the anthropocene. Environ Sci Technol 44:2228–2231

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeffrey Howard .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Howard, J. (2017). The Nature and Significance of Anthropogenic Soils. In: Anthropogenic Soils. Progress in Soil Science. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54331-4_1

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics