Conclusion: “‘Geography’ versus Institutions”?
One critique of neo-determinism, which emphasizes the role of social institutions over what it mislabels “geography,” errs on the opposite side by disregarding the important role often—though not independently—played by the environment. Both the “institutions” and the “geography” approaches seek an exogenous variable that can be treated as a first cause and fail to find it, because environment and society, as geographers would stress, are interdependent and co-evolving.
KeywordsEnvironmental determinism Geography vs. institutions Nature–society interaction
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