Environmental Determinism: What Is It?
Environmental determinism can be defined in two ways: as treating the environment as a factor influencing human affairs independently and from the outside, and as an overriding emphasis on the environmental elements in a situation of nature–society interaction. A claim may be determinism without being fatalism (i.e., seeing an environmental factor as always and necessarily producing a certain outcome), and it may be environmental determinism even if the environmental feature in question itself stems in part or whole from human actions.
KeywordsEnvironmental determinism Environmental fatalism Nature–society interaction
- Blaut, James M., 1993, The Colonizer’s Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History (New York: The Guilford Press).Google Scholar
- Huntington, Ellsworth, 1915, Civilization and Climate (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
- Martin, Geoffrey J., 1973, Ellsworth Huntington: His Life and Thought (Hamden, CT: Archon Books).Google Scholar
- Meyer, William B., 2014, Americans and Their Weather: A History (Updated edition) (New York: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
- Montesquieu, baron de, 1989, The Spirit of the Laws (orig. 1748), translated and edited by Anne M. Cohler, Basia Carolyn Miller, and Harold Samuel Stone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
- Peet, Richard, and Elaine Hartwick, 1999, Theories of Development (New York: The Guilford Press).Google Scholar
- Robbins, Paul, 2004, Political Ecology: A Critical Introduction (Malden, MA: Blackwell).Google Scholar
- Sluyter, Andrew, 2002, Colonialism and Landscape: Postcolonial Theory and Applications (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).Google Scholar
- Toynbee, Arnold J., 1934, A Study of History, Vol. 2 (London: Humphrey Milford/Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
- Van Hise, Charles Richard, 1910, The Conservation of Natural Resources in the United States (New York: Macmillan).Google Scholar