Digitalization in Greece: State of Play, Barriers, Challenges, Solutions

  • Sokratis K. KatsikasEmail author
  • Stefanos Gritzalis
Part of the Public Administration and Information Technology book series (PAIT, volume 25)


Digitalization refers to the adoption or increase in use of digital or computer technology by an organization, industry, country, etc. Several sources of information exist that allow the determination of the state of play as regards digitalization in Greece; Greece performs poorly in all these measurement frameworks. Greece’s strengths in relation to its ability to progress substantially with digitalization lie in its human capital; the broadband penetration and usage; and the research and development output. In contrast, its most important weaknesses are the lack of importance of ICT in the political vision and government agenda; the success of the government in pushing forward the use of ICT; the effectiveness of the judicial system in resolving business conflicts and in resolving regulation disputes; and the ineffectiveness of the public administration. In this chapter, we identify the reasons for this poor performance and attribute them to intrinsic characteristics of the political landscape in Greece, with a view toward formulating proposals for solving inherent, long-lasting problems.


Public Administration Greek Government Ministerial Council Open Government Data Digitalization Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anon., 2010. Introductory Report of Law 3861/2010 «Enhancing Transparency by mandatory suspension of laws and acts of government, local and regional administrative bodies on the Internet: Diavgeia Project”. Athens: s.n.Google Scholar
  2. Anon., 2015. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D 2003–13 (% of GDP). [Online] Available at:,_2003%E2%80%9313_(%25_of_GDP)_YB15.png
  3. Anon., 2015. The World’s Best Countries in Science. [Online] Available at:
  4. Anon., 2016a. Law 4389/2016 “Urgent provisions for the application of the agreement on fiscal goals and structural reforms, and other provisions”. Athens: National Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anon., 2016b. Percentage of the ICT sector on GDP. [Online] Available at:
  6. Anon., 2016c. Presidential Decree 123/2016. Athens: National press.Google Scholar
  7. Anon., 2016d. Scimago Journal & Country Rank. [Online] Available at:
  8. Anthopoulos, L., & Reddick, C. (2016). Smart City and Smart Government: Synonymous or Complementary? WWW’16 Companion (pp. 351–355). Montreal: ACM.Google Scholar
  9. Anthopoulos, L., Triantafyllou, D., & Fitsilis, P. (2012). e-Strategic Management Lessons from Greece. In C. Reddick, Public Sector Transformation through e-Government: Experiences from Europe and North America (pp. 224–241). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Baller, S., Dutta, S., & Lanvin, B. (2016). The Global Information Technology Report. World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  11. Björklund, F. (2016). e-Government and moral citizenship: the case of Estonia. Citizenship studies, 914–931.Google Scholar
  12. Committee for ICT. (2012). National strategy for ICT and e-Government. Athens.Google Scholar
  13. European Commission ISA Programme. (2016). European Interoperability Reference Architecture. Google Scholar
  14. European Commission. (2015). Future-proofing eGovernment for a Digital Single Market. Directorate General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology, Brussels.Google Scholar
  15. European Commission. (2016). Digital Scoreboard. Retrieved September 4, 2016, from Digital Single Market:
  16. European IT Observatory. (2016). ICT Market report 2016/2017. Athens: Association of ICT Businesses in Greece.Google Scholar
  17. Eurostat. (2016, March 21). Government expenditure on education. Retrieved from Eurostat statistics explained:
  18. General Secretariat for Digital Policy. (2016). National Digital Strategy. Athens.Google Scholar
  19. General Secretariat for Telecommunications and Post. (2015). National Next Generation Broadband Access Plan. Athens.Google Scholar
  20. General Secretariat for Telecommunications and Posts. (2014). strategy for digital development: Digital Greece 2021. Athens.Google Scholar
  21. Giannitsis, A. (2012). The fair and the unfair. TO VIMA, 5 September.Google Scholar
  22. Gritzalis, S. (2014). Administrative reform for the citizens and enterpreneurship: Fundamental problems and a framework for solutions, now! In S. Gritzalis, S. Katsikas, A. Mitsos, N. Polyzos, D. Spinellis, M. Stratigaki, et al., From the University to Public Administration: A return journey. Athens, Greece: Papazisis publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Informatics Committee, (2005). Digital Strategy 2006–2013. Athens: s.n.Google Scholar
  24. International Telecommunication Union. (2016). Measuring the Information Society Report. Geneva: International Telecommunication Union.Google Scholar
  25. Katsikas, S. (2014). Information and Communications Technologies: How to stop being a follower in Europe. In S. Gritzalis, S. Katsikas, A. Mitsos, N. Polyzos, D. Spinellis, M. Stratigaki, et al., From the University to Public Administration: A return journey. Athens, Greece: Papazisis publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Katz, R., Koutroumpis, P., & Callorda, F. (2014). Using a digitization index to measure the economic and social impact of digital agendas. info, 16 (1), 32–44.Google Scholar
  27. Kreiss, D., & Brennen, S. (2014). Digitalization and Digitization. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 April 2016]
  28. Melidis, A., Deligiannis, A., & Priftis, T. (2016). Independent Reporting Mechanism (IRM) Progress Report 2014–2015: Greece. Athens: OpenWise.Google Scholar
  29. Ministerial Council of Greece. (2002). Greece in the Information Society: Strategy and Actions. Athens.Google Scholar
  30. Ministry of Administrative Reform and e-Government. (2014). Strategy for e-Government 2014–2020. Athens.Google Scholar
  31. Nielsen, M. M. (2016). Digitising a Small Island State: a Lesson in Faroese. 9th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV ‘15–16) (pp. 54-59). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  32. Nielsen, M., & Yasouka, M. (2014). An analysis of the Danish approach to egovernment benefit realisation. Internet Technologies and Society 2014 (pp. 47–58). New Taipei City, Taiwan: IADIS.Google Scholar
  33. OECD Council on Digital Government Strategies. (2014). Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies. OECD. OECD.Google Scholar
  34. Open Data Barometer. (2015). ODB Global Report Third Edition. World Wide web Foundation.Google Scholar
  35. Panaritis, E. (2014, September 24). The Greek judicial system in critical condition. Scholar
  36. Simitis, C. (2013, March 16). Growth. How? The Journal of Journalists.Google Scholar
  37. Skouris, V., Pikrammenos, P., Fortsakis, T., Argyropoulos, C., & Fragkakis, N. (2013, May 16). Why does the judicial system malfunctions? Athens, Greece.Google Scholar
  38. Spanou, K. (1996). The Problem of Public Administration: A First Approach. Athens, Greece: Foundation for Economic & Industrial Research.Google Scholar
  39. Transparency International. (2015). Corruption Perceptions Index. Transparency International.Google Scholar
  40. United Nations. (2016). e-Government Survey. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  41. van Ark, B. (2014). Productivity and digitalisation in Europe: Paving the Road to Faster Growth. Brussels: The Lisbon Council.Google Scholar
  42. Venizelos, E. (2008). Towards a post-representative democracy: the institutional conditions of another policy. Athens: Polis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Cyber and Information SecurityNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyGjøvikNorway
  2. 2.Department of Digital SystemsUniversity of PiraeusPiraeusGreece
  3. 3.Department of Information and Communication Systems EngineeringUniversity of the AegeanSamosGreece

Personalised recommendations