How to Make it in(to) Management: The Role of Business Education in Changing Career Pathways in Germany

Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Global Higher Education book series (PSGHE)

Abstract

This chapter discusses changes to career pathways for management positions in Germany. It concentrates on the active role higher education plays in forming such pathways, with a focus on business education. The German work world has been for a long time characterized as an expert culture that provided access to management positions in companies based on experience and specialization. However, the role of formalized and general management knowledge for such high-status positions has increased throughout the last decades. The chapter analyzes quantitative and structural changes in higher education that favor management education. It accounts for the increase in career services in business faculties that impact on career pathways by easing access into high-status companies. This is exemplified trough field evidence from one private business school.

Keywords

Business Administration Germany Career Pathways Differentiation Career Service 

References

  1. Baker, D. (2009). The Educational Transformation of Work: Towards A New Synthesis. Journal of Education and Work, 22(3), pp. 163–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bloch, R., Kreckel, R., Mitterle, A., and Stock, M. (2014). Stratifikationen im Bereich der Hochschulbildung in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 17(S3), pp. 243–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloch, R., and Mitterle, A. (2017). On stratification in Changing Higher Education: The ‘Analysis of Status’ Revisited. Higher Education. Online First. doi: 10.1007/s10734-017-0113-5.
  4. Bluhm, K., Martens, B., and Trappmann, V. (2014). The Long Shadow of the ‘German Model’. Business Leaders in Social and Institutional Change. In: K. Bluhm, B. Martens, and V. Trappmann, eds., Business leaders and New Varieties of Capitalism in Post-Communist Europe. London, New York: Routledge, pp. 79–108.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, P., Lauder, H., and Ashton, D.H. (2010). The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bundesamt Statistisches (2016). Bildung und Kultur. Schnellmeldungsergebnisse der Hochschulstatistik zu Studierenden und Studienanfänger/-innen– vorläufige Ergebnisse – Wintersemester 2016/2017. Destatis: Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  7. Byrkjeflot, H. (1998). Management as a System of Knowledge and Authority. In: J.L. Alvarez, ed., The Diffusion and Consumption of Business Knowledge. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 58–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byrkjeflot, H. (2003). To MBA or not to MBA? A Dilemma Accentuated by the Recent Boom in Business Education. In: R.P. Amdam, R.Kvalshaugen, and E.Larsen, eds, Inside the Business Schools: The Content of European Business Education. 1st ed. Oslo, Herndon, VA: Abstrakt; Copenhagen Business School Press, pp. 219–246.Google Scholar
  9. Byrkjeflot, H., and Fligstein, N. (1996). The Logic of Employment Systems. In: D.B. Grusky, ed., Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 11–37.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, B.R. (1972). The Organizational Saga in Higher Education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(2), pp. 178–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins, R. (1987). Schließungsprozesse und die Konflikttheorie der Professionen. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 12, pp. 46–60.Google Scholar
  12. DiMaggio, P.J., and Powell, W.W. (1983). The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), pp. 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Engwall, L. (2007). The Anatomy of Management Education. Management Education: Research and Practice, 23(1), pp. 4–35.Google Scholar
  14. Faust, M. (2002). Karrieremuster von Führungskräften der Wirtschaft im Wandel - Der Fall Deutschland in vergleichender Perspektive. SOFI-Mitteilungen30. [online] Göttingen: Soziologisches Forschungsinstitut Göttingen an der Georg-August-Universität, pp. 69–90. Available at: http://www.sofi.uni-goettingen.de/fileadmin/SOFI-Mitteilungen/Nr._30/faust.pdf [Accessed 16 Dec. 2016].
  15. Freye, S. (2009). Führungswechsel: Die Wirtschaftselite und das Ende der Deutschland AG. Frankfurt, M, New York, NY: Campus-Verl.Google Scholar
  16. Grey, C. (1999). ‘We Are All Managers Now’; ‘We Always Were’: On the Development and Demise of Management. Journal of Management Studies, 36(5), pp. 561–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartmann, M. (2009). Wer wird Manager? Soziale Schließung durch Bildungsabschlüsse und Herkunft im internationalen Vergleich. In: R. Stichweh and P. Windolf, eds, Inklusion und Exklusion: Analysen zur Sozialstruktur und sozialen Ungleichheit. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hartmann, M. (2015). Das deutsche Managementmodell. Personalführung, 48(7/8), pp. 56–62.Google Scholar
  19. Hedmo, T., Sahlin-Andersson, K., and Wedlin, L. (2005). Fields of Imitation: The Global Expansion of Management Education. In: B. Czarniawska and G.Sevón, eds, Global Ideas: How Ideas, Objects and Practices Travel in the Global Economy. Malmö: Liber & Copenhagen Business School Press.Google Scholar
  20. Immer, D. (2013). Rechtsprobleme der Akkreditierung von Studiengängen. Göttingen: Universitäts-Verlag Göttingen.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jörns, S. (2002). Berufsvorbereitung durch Career Services im Rahmen der universitären Ausbildung: Rekonstruktion und Analyse der Institutionalisierung eines neuen Dienstleistungsangebotes an deutschen Universitäten. PhD. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.Google Scholar
  22. Kaufmann, B. (2011). Akkreditierung als Mikropolitik?:Wirkung neuer Steuerungsinstrumente Auf der Mikroebene am Beispiel von Akkreditierungen gestufter Studienprogramme an deutschen Hochschulen: Vs Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  23. Khurana, R. (2007). From Higher Aims to Hired Hands. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kreckel, R. (2010). Zwischen Spitzenforschung und Breitenausbildung. Strukturelle Differenzierungen an deutschen Hochschulen im internationalen Vergleich. In: H.-H. Krüger, U. Rabe-Kleberg, R.-T.Kramer, and J. Budde, eds, Bildungsungleichheit revisited. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 237–258.Google Scholar
  25. Lawrence, P.A. (1980). Managers and Management in West Germany. New York: St: Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  26. Locke, R.R. (1989). Management and Higher Education Since 1940: The Influence of America and Japan on West Germany, Great Britain, and France. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Locke, R.R., and Schöne, K.E. (2004). The Entrepreneurial Shift: Americanization in European High-Technology Management Education. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lutz, B. (1976). Die Beziehung von Bildungssystem und Beschäftigungssystem. Subordination, Entkopplung oder was sonst?. In: H.G. Mendius, W. Sengenberger, B. Lutz, N. Altmann, F. Böhle, I. Asendorf-Krings, I. Drexer, and C. Nuber, eds, Betrieb – Arbeitsmarkt – Qualifikation I: Beiträge zu Rezession und Personalpolitik, Bildungsexpansion und Arbeitsteilung, Humanisierung und Qualifizierung, Reproduktion und Qualifikation. Frankfurt a. M: Aspekte Verlag, pp. 83–153.Google Scholar
  29. Maurice, M., Sorge, A., and Warner, M. (1980). Societal Differences in Organizing Manufacturing Units: A Comparison of France, West Germany, and Great Britain. Organization Studies, 1(1), pp. 59–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meyer, J.W. (1977). The Effects of Education as an Institution. The American Journal of Sociology, 83(1), pp. 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meyer, J.W. (2002). Globalization, Expansion, and Standardization of Management. In: K.Sahlin-Andersson and L. Engwall, eds, The Expansion of Management knowledge: Carriers, Flows, and Sources. Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books, pp. 33–44.Google Scholar
  32. Mintzberg, H. (2004). Managers not MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Managing and Management Development. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  33. Mitterle, A., Würmann, C., and Bloch, R. (2015). Teaching Without Faculty: Policy Interactions and Their Effects on the Network of Teaching in German Higher Education. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 36(4), pp. 560–577.Google Scholar
  34. Mitterle, A. (2016). In Search of the Private: On the Specificities of Private Higher Education in Germany. In: D. Cantini, ed, Rethinking Private Higher Education Ethnographic Perspectives. Leiden Boston: Brill, pp. 193–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mitterle, A., and Stock, M. (2015). Exklusive Hochschulen«. Instrumentelle Rationalisierung und Rangdifferenzierung im deutschen Hochschulwesen am Beispiel von Business Schools. In: S.Rademacher and A.Wernet, eds, Bildungsqualen. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp. 185–206.Google Scholar
  36. Moon, H. (2002). The Globalization of Professional Management Education, 1881–2000: It’s Rise, Expansion, and Implications. Dissertation, Stanford University. Available at: http://www.worldcat.org/title/globalization-of-professional-management-education-1881-2000-its-rise-expansionand-implications/oclc/697765545?referer=di&ht=edition.
  37. Nespor, J. (1994). Knowledge in Motion: Space, Time, and Curriculum in Undergraduate Physics and Management. London, Washington, DC: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  38. Nespor, J. (2014). Schooling for the Long-Term: Elite Education and Temporal Accumulation. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 17(S 3), pp. 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nicolai, A.T. (2004). The Bridge to the ‘Real World’: Applied Science or a ‘Schizophrenic Tour de Force’?. Journal of Management Studies, 41(6), pp. 951–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pohlmann, M., Bär, S., and Valarini, E. (2014). The Analysis of Collective Mindsets: Introducing a New Method of Institutional Analysis in Comparative Research. Revista de Sociologia e Política, 22(52), pp. 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reisz, R.D., and Stock, M. (2013). Hochschulexpansion, Wandel der Fächerproportionen und Akademikerarbeitslosigkeit in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 16(1), pp. 137–156 (accessed 15 May 2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rivera, L.A. (2015). Pedigree: How Elite Students get elite jobs. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rohrbach-Schmidt, D., and Tiemann, M. (2016). Educational (Mis)match and Skill Utilization in Germany: Assessing the Role of Worker and Job Characteristics. Journal for Labour Market Research, 49(2), pp. 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sahlin-Andersson, K., and Engwall, L. (2002). Carriers, Flows, and Sources of Management Knowledge. In: K. Sahlin-Andersson and L. Engwall, eds, The Expansion of Management Knowledge: Carriers, Flows, and Sources. Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.Google Scholar
  45. Schimank, U., and Lange, S. (2010). Germany: A Latecomer to New Public Management. In: C. Paradeise, ed., University Governance: Western European Comparative Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Schleef, D.J. (2006). Managing Elites: Professional Socializaton in Law and Business Schools. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Schomburg, H., and Teichler, U. (2011). Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe: Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam, Boston: Sense.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schröder, M. (2015). Studienwahl unter den Folgen einer radikalen Differenzierung. Bad Heilbrunn: Julius Klinkhardt.Google Scholar
  49. Sorge, A. (1979). Engineers in Management: A Study of British, German and French Traditions. Journal of General Management, 5(1), pp. 46–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sorge, A. (1991). Strategic Fit and the Societal Effect: Interpreting Cross-National Comparison of Technology, Organization and Human Resources. Organization Studies, 12(2), pp. 161–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stock, M. (2011). Akademische Bildung und die Unterscheidung von Breiten- und Elitebildung. Soziale Welt, 62(2), pp. 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stock, M. (2015). Universitäten unter dem Regime der Realabstraktion: „Internationalität“ als Ressource der vertikalen Positionierung von Hochschulen. Sozialer Sinn, 10(2), pp. 49–70.Google Scholar
  53. Stock, M. (2016). Arbeitskraft- und Stellentypisierung. Organisationssoziologische Überlegungen zum Zusammenhang von Bildung und Beschäftigung. In: M.S.Meier, ed., Organisation und Bildung. Wiesbaden: Springer, pp. 75–93.Google Scholar
  54. Streeck, W. (2009). Re-Forming Capitalism: Institutional Change in the German Political Economy. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Stetten, A.V., Weinert, C., et al. (2015). Recruiting Trends 2015: Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Finanzdienstleistung, Health Care und IT. [online] Centre of Human Resources Information System Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg: Bamberg. Available at https://www.uni-bamberg.de/fileadmin/uni/fakultaeten/wiai_lehrstuehle/isdl/Recruiting_Trends_2015.pdf [Accessed 16 Dec. 2016].
  56. Whitley, R. (1995). Academic Knowledge and Work Jurisdiction in Management. Organization Studies, 16(1), pp. 81–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Witte, J., Van Der Wende, M., and Huisman, J. (2008). Blurring Boundaries: How the Bologna Process Changes the Relationship Between University and Non‐University Higher Education in Germany, the Netherlands and France. Studies in Higher Education, 33(3), pp. 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of SociologyMartin Luther University Halle-WittenbergHalleGermany

Personalised recommendations