Advertisement

Pediatric Dermatology

Chapter
  • 777 Downloads

Abstract

The study of pediatric skin of color encompasses a variety of beautiful birthmarks, reactive pigmentary changes, and altered disease morphologies and prevalences compared to patients with fair skin. This chapter discusses noteworthy congenital and acquired conditions in children with darker skin, including their psychosocial impact.

Keywords

Pediatric dermatology Pigmentary birthmarks and disorders Secondary dyspigmentation Atopic dermatitis Pediatric malignancy Psychosocial issues in pediatric dermatology 

References

  1. 1.
    Jablonski NG. The evolution of human skin colouration and its relevance to health in the modern world. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2012;42(1):58–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaplin G. Geographic distribution of environmental factors influencing human skin coloration. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004;125(3):292–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Campbell MC, Tishkoff SA. The evolution of human genetic and phenotypic variation in Africa. Curr Biol. 2010;20(4):R166–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Campbell MC, Tishkoff SA. African genetic diversity: implications for human demographic history, modern human origins, and complex disease mapping. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2008;9:403–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bryc K, et al. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;96(1):37–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brauner GJ. Cutaneous disease in black children. Am J Dis Child. 1983;137(5):488–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henderson MD, et al. Skin-of-color epidemiology: a report of the most common skin conditions by race. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(5):584–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shih IH, et al. A birthmark survey in 500 newborns: clinical observation in two northern Taiwan medical center nurseries. Chang Gung Med J. 2007;30(3):220–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McLaughlin MR, O’Connor NR, Ham P. Newborn skin: Part II. Birthmarks. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(1):56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kahana M, et al. The incidence of birthmarks in Israeli neonates. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34(10):704–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alper JC, Holmes LB. The incidence and significance of birthmarks in a cohort of 4,641 newborns. Pediatr Dermatol. 1983;1(1):58–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bolognia J, Orlow SJ. Melanocyte biology. In: Bolognia J, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, editors. Dermatology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2012.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leung AKC, Robson WLM. Superimposed Mongolian Spots. Pediatr Dermatol. 2008;25(2):233–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dermal melanocytosis (nevus of Ito) and concurrent cellular neurothekeoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(5, Supplement 1):AB83.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chaithirayanon S, Chunharas A. A survey of birthmarks and cutaneous skin lesions in newborns. J Med Assoc Thai. 2013;96(Suppl 1):S49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gupta D, Thappa DM. Mongolian Spots—a prospective study. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(6):683–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mimouni-Bloch, A., et al. Extensive Mongolian Spots and lysosomal storage diseases. J Pediatr. 2016;170: 333-333.e1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang T, Jiang X. Three cases of symmetrical nevus of Ota and a brief literature review. Int J Dermatol. 2016;55(7):e404–6.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bilateral nevus of Ota and nevus of Ito. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;68(4, Supplement 1):AB150.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shields JA, et al. Choroidal melanoma in a black patient with oculodermal melanocytosis. Retina. 2002;22(1):126–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Infante de German-Ribon R, et al. Choroidal melanoma with oculodermal melanocytosis in Hispanic patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128(2):251–3.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goldman-Levy G, et al. Primary melanoma of the leptomeninges with bap1 expression-loss in the setting of a nevus of ota: a clinical, morphological and genetic study of 2 cases. Brain Pathol. 2016;26(4):547–50.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Franceschini D, Dinulos JG. Dermal melanocytosis and associated disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015;27(4):480–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bisceglia M, et al. Nevus of Ota. Presentation of a case associated with a cellular blue nevus with suspected malignant degeneration and review of the literature. Pathologica. 1997;89(2):168–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lindsey SF, et al. Malignant melanoma from a nevus of Ota in a pediatric patient with fatal outcome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69(4):e195–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Trindade F, Santonja C, Requena L. Bilateral nevus of Ito and nevus spilus in the same patient. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59(2, Supplement):S51–2.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wise SR, et al. Malignant melanoma transformation within a nevus of Ito. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(5):869–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nakamura Y, et al. Malignant blue nevus arising in a giant congenital cellular blue nevus in an infant. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(5):651–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Popovic M, et al. Childhood malignant blue nevus of the ear associated with two intracranial melanocytic tumors-metastases or neurocutaneous melanosis? Hum Pathol. 2004;35(10):1292–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rabinovits HS, Barnhill RL. Benign Melanocytic Neoplasm. In Bolognia J, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, editors. Dermatology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. 2012.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shah KN. The diagnostic and clinical significance of cafe-au-lait macules. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2010;57(5):1131–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Landau M, Krafchik BR. The diagnostic value of café-au-lait macules. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40(6):877–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kalter DC, Griffiths WA, Atherton DJ. Linear and whorled nevoid hypermelanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19(6):1037–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Torchia D, Happle R. Segmental hypomelanosis and hypermelanosis arranged in a checkerboard pattern are distinct naevi: flag-like hypomelanotic naevus and flag-like hypermelanotic naevus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015;29(11):2088–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Happle R, Franco-Guío MF, Santacoloma-Osorio G. Phylloid hypermelanosis: a cutaneous marker of several different disorders? Pediatr Dermatol. 2014;31(4):504–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ruiz-Maldonado R, et al. Hypomelanosis of Ito: diagnostic criteria and report of 41 cases. Pediatr Dermatol. 1992;9(1):1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ruggieri M, Pavone L. Hypomelanosis of Ito: clinical syndrome or just phenotype? J Child Neurol. 2000;15(10):635–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sybert VP, et al. Pigmentary abnormalities and mosaicism for chromosomal aberration: association with clinical features similar to hypomelanosis of Ito. J Pediatr. 1990;116(4):581–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Di Lernia V. Linear and whorled hypermelanosis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24(3):205–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ertam I, et al. Linear and whorled nevoid hypermelanosis: dermatoscopic features. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(2):328–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    James WD, Carter JM, Rodman OG. Pigmentary demarcation lines: a population survey. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;16(3 Pt 1):584–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Somani VK, Razvi F, Sita VN. Pigmentary demarcation lines over the face. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2004;70(6):336–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sarma N, Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya SR. Acquired, idiopathic, patterned facial pigmentation (AIPFP) including periorbital pigmentation and pigmentary demarcation lines on face follows the Lines of Blaschko on face. Indian J Dermatol. 2014;59(1):41–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cho E, et al. Type B pigmentary demarcation lines of pregnancy involving the anterior thighs and knees. Ann Dermatol. 2012;24(3):348–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Garg G, Bhalla M, Thami GP. Transient infantile patterned hyperpigmentation. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(3):372–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fosse N, Itin P. Pigmentary lines of the newborn: a case report and review of the literature. Dermatology. 2014;228(3):198–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Antonovich DD, Grin C, Grant-Kels JM. Childhood subungual melanoma in situ in diffuse nail melanosis beginning as expanding longitudinal melanonychia. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22(3):210–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cooper C, et al. A clinical, histopathologic, and outcome study of melanonychia striata in childhood. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(5):773–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Viana AC, Gontijo B, Bittencourt FV. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(6):863–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ibrahimi OA, Alikhan A, Eisen DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: Where are we now?: Part II. Treatment options and approach to treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67(4):515.e1–13.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Permatasari F, Zhou BR, Luo D. Late-onset acquired dermal melanocytosis on the hand of a Chinese woman. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2013;79(2):269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mataix J, et al. Late-onset Ito’s nevus: an uncommon acquired dermal melanocytosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34(8):640–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Choi JC, et al. Progressive cribriform and zosteriform hyperpigmentation—the late onset linear and whorled nevoid hypermelanosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19(5):638–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Book SE, Glass AT, Laude TA. Congenital Becker’s nevus with a familial association. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14(5):373–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pahwa P, Sethuraman G. Segmental Becker’s Nevi with mucosal involvement. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(5):670–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jones AC, Ford MJ. Simultaneous occurrence of segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia and Becker’s nevus. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999;57(10):1251–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baeta IG, et al. Becker’s nevus syndrome: case report. An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85(5):713–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lapidoth M, et al. Hypertrichosis in Becker’s nevus: effective low-fluence laser hair removal. Lasers Med Sci. 2014;29(1):191–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nanni CA, Alster TS. Treatment of a Becker’s nevus using a 694-nm long-pulsed ruby laser. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24(9):1032–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Glaich AS, et al. Fractional resurfacing: a new therapeutic modality for Becker’s nevus. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(12):1488–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Taylor SC. Skin of color: biology, structure, function, and implications for dermatologic disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(2 Suppl Understanding):S41–62.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Halder RM, Nootheti PK. Ethnic skin disorders overview. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48(6, Supplement):S143–8.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cardinali G, Kovacs D, Picardo M. Mechanisms underlying post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: lessons from solar lentigo. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012;139(Suppl 4):S148–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Magaña M, Herrera-Goepfert R. Friction hypermelanosis: other variants. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47(3):454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Naimer SA, et al. Davener’s dermatosis: a variant of friction hypermelanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(3):442–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ciliberto H, et al. Heel-line hyperpigmentation: a variant of sock-line hyperpigmentation after the use of heel-length socks. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(4):473–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Diamond G, Ben D. Amitai, Orphan rocker tracks: a variant of friction melanosis in an institutionalized child. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(6):e198–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jang K-A, et al. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation: report of 10 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(2, Part 2):351–3.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rodríguez VG, et al. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation: a diagnostic challenge. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64(2, Supplement 1):AB132.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Abbas O. Asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015;32(5):733–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chang MW. Disorders of hyperpigmentation. In: Bolognia J, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, editors. Dermatology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. 2012. p. 1 online resource (2 v. in 1).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wiesenborn A, Hengge U, Megahed M. Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis. Gougerot-Carteaud disease. Hautarzt. 2004;55(10):976–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Beutler BD, Cohen PR, Lee RA. Prurigo pigmentosa: literature review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2015;16(6):533–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ilkovitch D, Patton TJ. Is prurigo pigmentosa an inflammatory version of confluent and reticulated papillomatosis? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69(4):e193–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Alfadley A, et al. Reticulate acropigmentation of Dohi: a case report of autosomal recessive inheritance. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43(1, Part 1):113–7.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Vachiramon V, Thadanipon K. Postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36(7):708–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Phiske MM. Childhood vitiligo. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2015.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tamesis MEB, Morelli JG. Vitiligo treatment in childhood: a state of the art review. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(5):437–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ezzedine K, Silverberg N. A practical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of vitiligo in children. Pediatrics. 2016;138(1).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hann SK, et al. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics of trichrome vitiligo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(4):589–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Miazek N, et al. Pityriasis alba—common disease, enigmatic entity: up-to-date review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015;32(6):786–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jadotte YT, Janniger CK. Pityriasis alba revisited: perspectives on an enigmatic disorder of childhood. Cutis. 2011;87(2):66–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Blessmann Weber M, et al. Pityriasis alba: a study of pathogenic factors. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16(5):463–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rigopoulos D, et al. Tacrolimus ointment 0.1% in pityriasis alba: an open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155(1):152–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Martínez-Martínez ML, et al. Progressive macular hypomelanosis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(4):460–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cavalcanti SM, et al. The use of lymecycline and benzoyl peroxide for the treatment of progressive macular hypomelanosis: a prospective study. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(4):813–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kim MB, et al. Narrowband UVB treatment of progressive macular hypomelanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66(4):598–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cavalcanti SM, et al. Investigation of Propionibacterium acnes in progressive macular hypomelanosis using real-time PCR and culture. Int J Dermatol. 2011;50(11):1347–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Taylor S, Kircik L. Community-based trial results of combination acne therapy in subjects with skin of color: postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(2, Supplement 2):AB13.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wysong A, Sundram U, Benjamin L. Clear-cell papulosis: a rare entity that may be misconstrued pathologically as normal skin. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(2):195–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tseng FW, et al. Long-term follow-up study of clear cell papulosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(2):266–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kim SW, Roh J, Park CS. Clear cell papulosis: a case report. J Pathol Transl Med. 2016.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sim JH, Do JE, Kim YC. Clear cell papulosis of the skin: acquired hypomelanosis. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147(1):128–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Eichenfield LF, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: Section 1. Diagnosis and assessment of atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70(2):338–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vachiramon V, et al. Atopic dermatitis in African American children: addressing unmet needs of a common disease. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(4):395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shaw TE, et al. Eczema prevalence in the United States: data from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131(1):67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Czarnowicki T, et al. Early pediatric atopic dermatitis shows only a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) TH2/TH1 cell imbalance, whereas adults acquire CLA(+) TH22/TC22 cell subsets. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):941–951.e3.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wang H, et al. Ethnic differences in pain, itch and thermal detection in response to topical capsaicin: African Americans display a notably limited hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162(5):1023–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Williams HC, Pembroke AC. Infraorbital crease, ethnic group, and atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132(1):51–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Slater NA, Morrell DS. Systemic therapy of childhood atopic dermatitis. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(3):289–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Galli E, et al. Consensus conference on clinical management of pediatric atopic dermatitis. Ital J Pediatr. 2016;42:26.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    McLeod HL, et al. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity in American white subjects and black subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;55(1):15–20.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sharma VK, Asati DP. Pediatric contact dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76(5):514–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mortz CG, et al. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(3):523–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Almeida PJ, et al. Quantification of p-phenylenediamine and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in henna tattoos. Contact Dermatitis. 2012;66(1):33–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lee PW, Elsaie ML, Jacob SE. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: common allergens and treatment: a review. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009;21(4):491–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sampaio AL, et al. Seborrheic dermatitis. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(6):1061–71; quiz 1072–4.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Borda LJ, Wikramanayake TC. Seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff: a comprehensive review. J Clin Investig Dermatol. 2015;3(2).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tollesson A, Frithz A, Stenlund K. Malassezia furfur in infantile seborrheic dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14(6):423–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gupta AK, Bluhm R. Seborrheic dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18(1):13–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Silverberg NB. Scalp hyperkeratosis in children with skin of color: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Cutis. 2015;95(4):199–204, 207.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tollefson MM, et al. Incidence of psoriasis in children: a population-based study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(6):979–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mercy K, et al. Clinical manifestations of pediatric psoriasis: results of a multicenter study in the United States. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(4):424–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Arese V, et al. Juvenile psoriasis: an epidemiological study of 69 cases in the universitary dermatology clinic in Turin. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Jun 30 (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Morris A, et al. Childhood psoriasis: a clinical review of 1262 cases. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001;18(3):188–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Conrado LA, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder among dermatologic patients: prevalence and clinical features. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(2):235–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    McMichael AJ, et al. Psoriasis in African-Americans: a caregivers’ survey. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):478–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bronckers IM, et al. Psoriasis in children and adolescents: diagnosis, management and comorbidities. Paediatr Drugs. 2015;17(5):373–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Napolitano M, et al. Systemic treatment of pediatric psoriasis: a review. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2016;6(2):125–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Saikaly SK, Mattes M. Biologics and pediatric generalized pustular psoriasis: an emerging therapeutic trend. Cureus. 2016;8(6):e652.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gutmark-Little I, Shah KN. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in pediatric psoriasis. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(3):305–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gündüz Ö, Ersoy-Evans S, Karaduman A. Childhood pityriasis rosea. Pediatric Dermatol. 2009;26(6):750–1.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Amer A, Fischer H, Li X. The natural history of pityriasis rosea in black American children: how correct is the “classic” description? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):503–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zawar V, Chuh A. Follicular pityriasis rosea. A case report and a new classification of clinical variants of the disease. J Dermatol Case Rep. 2012;6(2):36–9.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Vano-Galvan S, et al. Atypical Pityriasis rosea in a black child: a case report. Cases J. 2009;2:6796.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sinha S, Sardana K, Garg VK. Coexistence of two atypical variants of pityriasis rosea: a case report and review of literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29(4):538–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Das A, et al. A case series of erythema multiforme-like pityriasis rosea. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(3):212–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Jairath V, et al. Narrowband UVB phototherapy in pityriasis rosea. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2015;6(5):326–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Drago F, Rebora A. Treatments for pityriasis rosea. Skin Therapy Lett. 2009;14(3):6–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kumar V, et al. Childhood lichen planus (LP). J Dermatol. 1993;20(3):175–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nanda A, et al. Childhood lichen planus: a report of 23 cases. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001;18(1):1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Luis-Montoya P, Dominguez-Soto L, Vega-Memije E. Lichen planus in 24 children with review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22(4):295–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kanwar AJ, De D. Lichen planus in children. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76(4):366–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Balasubramaniam P, Ogboli M, Moss C. Lichen planus in children: review of 26 cases. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33(4):457–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Walton KE, et al. Childhood lichen planus: demographics of a U.S. population. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(1):34–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Limas C, Limas CJ. Lichen planus in children: a possible complication of hepatitis B vaccines. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19(3):204–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kabbash C, et al. Lichen planus in the lines of Blaschko. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19(6):541–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Cohen DM, et al. Childhood lichen planus pemphigoides: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(5):569–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nnoruka EN. Lichen planus in African children: a study of 13 patients. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24(5):495–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Taylor SC, et al. Acne vulgaris in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(2 Suppl Understanding):S98–106.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Davis EC, Callender VD. A review of acne in ethnic skin: pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management strategies. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2010;3(4):24–38.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Alexis AF, Sergay AB, Taylor SC. Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey. Cutis. 2007;80(5):387–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Arfan ul, Bari, Khan MB. Dermatological disorders related to cultural practices in black Africans of Sierra Leone. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2007;17(5):249–52.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shah SK, Alexis AF. Acne in skin of color: practical approaches to treatment. J Dermatolog Treat. 2010;21(3):206–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Nguyen V, Eichenfield LF. Periorificial dermatitis in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55(5):781–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kuflik JH, Janniger CK, Piela Z. Perioral dermatitis: an acneiform eruption. Cutis. 2001;67(1):21–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Knautz MA, Lesher JL. Childhood granulomatous periorificial dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 1996;13(2):131–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rodriguez-Caruncho C, et al. Childhood granulomatous periorificial dermatitis with a good response to oral metronidazole. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(5):e98–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rodney IJ, et al. Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):420–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mirmirani P, Khumalo NP. Traction alopecia: how to translate study data for public education—closing the KAP gap? Dermatol Clin. 2014;32(2):153–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Khumalo NP, et al. Hairdressing is associated with scalp disease in African schoolchildren. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157(1):106–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Mirmirani P, Tucker L-Y. Epidemiologic trends in pediatric tinea capitis: a population-based study from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69(6):916–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gupta AK, et al. Tinea capitis: an overview with emphasis on management. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999;16(3):171–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bonifaz A, et al. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(2):140–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kiken DA, et al. White piedra in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55(6):956–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kalter DC, et al. Genital white piedra: epidemiology, microbiology, and therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14(6):982–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Viswanath V, et al. White piedra of scalp hair by Trichosporon inkin. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77(5):591–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Desai DH, Nadkarni NJ. Piedra: an ethnicity-related trichosis? Int J Dermatol. 2014;53(8):1008–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Van Praag MCG. et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pustular Disorders in the Neonate. Pediatric Dermatology. 1997;14(2):131–143.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ghosh S. Neonatal pustular dermatosis: an overview. Indian J Dermatol. 2015;60(2):211.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Jennings JL, Burrows WM. Infantile acropustulosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9(5):733–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mancini AJ, Frieden IJ, Paller AS. Infantile Acropustulosis Revisited: History of Scabies and Response to Topical Corticosteroids. Pediatric Dermatology. 1998;15(5):337–341.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Castano E, et al. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in childhood and adolescence: a long-term retrospective study. J Cutan Pathol. 2013;40(11):924–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Westhoff W. A psychosocial study of albinism in a predominately mulatto Caribbean community. Psychol Rep. 1993;73(3):1007–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Dertlioğlu SB, Cicek D, Balci DD, Halisdemir N. Dermatology life quality index scores in children with vitiligo: comparison with atopic dermatitis and healthy control subjects. Int J Dermatol. 2012;52(1):96–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Magin P, Adams J, Heading G, Pond D, Smith W. Experiences of appearance-related teasing and bullying in skin diseases and their psychological sequelae: results of a qualitative study. Scand J Caring Sci. 2008;22(3):430–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Noor Aziah MS, Rosnah T, Mardziah A, Norzila MZ. Atopic dermatitis: a measurement of quality of life and family impact. Med J Malaysia. 2002;57(3):329–39.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ganemo A, Lindholm C, Lindberg M, Sjoden P-O, Vahlquist A. Quality of life in adults with congenital ichthyosis. J Adv Nurs. 2003;44(4):412–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Thompson AR. Body issues in dermatology. In: Cash TF, Smolak L, editors. Body image, a handbook of science, practice, and prevention. New York: Guilford Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Thompson A, Kent G. Adjusting to disfigurement: processes involved in dealing with being visibly different. Clin Psychol Rev. 2001;21(5):663–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nguyen CM, Koo J, Cordoro KM. Psychodermatologic effects of atopic dermatitis and acne: a review on self-esteem and identity. Pediatr Dermatol. 2016;33(2):129–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Picardi A, Abeni D, Melchi C, Puddu P, Pasquini P. Psychiatric morbidity in dermatological outpatients: an issue to be recognized. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143(5):983–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bilgiç Ö, Bilgiç A, Akiş HK, Eskioğlu F, Kiliç EZ. Depression, anxiety and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with vitiligo. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2010;36(4):360–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Alghamdi KM. Beliefs and perceptions of Arab vitiligo patients regarding their condition. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49(10):1141–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mattoo S, Handa S, Kaur I, Gupta N, Malhotra R. Psychiatric morbidity in vitiligo: prevalence and correlates in India. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16(6):573–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Absolon CM, Cottrell D, Eldridge SM, Glover MT. Psychological disturbance in atopic eczema: the extent of the problem in school-aged children. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137(2):241–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Kimata H. Prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients with atopic dermatitis. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2006;36:120–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Tareen RS, Tareen AN. Psychiatric disorders frequently encountered in dermatology practices. In: Tareen RS, Gredanus DE, Jafferany M, Patel DR, Merrick J, editors. Pediatric psychodermatology: a clinical manual of child and adolescent psychocutaneous disorders. Boston: De Gruyter; 2013.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Richards HL, Fortune DG, Weidmann A, Sweeney SK, Griffiths CE. Detection of psychological distress in patients with psoriasis; low consensus between dermatologist and patient. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151:1227–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Seghers AC, et al. Atopic dirty neck or acquired atopic hyperpigmentation? An epidemiological and clinical study from the National Skin Centre in Singapore. Dermatology. 2014;229(3):174–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Chamlin SL, Frieden IJ, Williams ML, Chren M. Effects of atopic dermatitis on young american children and their families. Pediatrics. 2004;114(3):607–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Naqvi H, Saul K. Culture and ethnicity. In: Rumsey N, Harcourt D, editors. The Oxford handbook of the psychology of appearance. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Papadopoulos L, Bor R, Walker C, Flaxman P, Legg C. Different shades of meaning: illness beliefs among vitiligo sufferers. Psychol Health Med. 2002;7(4):425–33.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ersser SJ, et al. Psychological and educational interventions for atopic eczema in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;4:CD009660.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Mitchell AE, et al. Childhood atopic dermatitis: a cross-sectional study of relationships between child and parent factors, atopic dermatitis management, and disease severity. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015;52(1):216–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyBoston University Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations