Poverty Incidence Among Minorities

Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter is devoted to a quantitative analysis of poverty incidence among minorities over time in China and India, using several indicators: (1) headcount ratios, (2) monthly per capita consumer expenditure and (3) poverty—gap ratios (PG), and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) ratios. Empirical evidence shows that both countries have achieved substantial reduction of rural and urban poverty during the last two decades for minorities as well as for the majority. Both countries have implemented anti-poverty programmes which are not always targeted specifically for minorities.

References

  1. Bhalla, A. S., & Qiu, S. (2006). Poverty and inequality among Chinese minorities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. GOC (Government of China). National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). (2002a). China rural household survey yearbook 2002. Beijing: NBS.Google Scholar
  3. GOC (Government of China), National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). (2002b). China urban household survey yearbook 2002. Beijing: NBS.Google Scholar
  4. GOC (Government of China), State Council. (2001). White paper on rural China’s poverty reduction. Beijing.Google Scholar
  5. GOI (Government of India). (2015). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, National Sample Survey (NSS) 68th round on household consumer expenditure across socioeconomic groups, 2011–2012. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  6. GOI (Government of India), Cabinet Secretariat. (2006, November). Social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community in India: A report of the prime minister’s High Level Committee (Chaired by Rajinder Sachar). New Delhi.Google Scholar
  7. Grewal, B. S., & Ahmed, A. D. (2011, March). Is China’s western development strategy on track? An assessment. Journal of Contemporary China, 20(69).Google Scholar
  8. Gustafsson, B., & Ding, S. (2009). Temporary and persistent poverty among ethnic minorities and the majority in rural China. Review of Income and Wealth, Series 55(1), Special S1.Google Scholar
  9. Gustafsson, B., & Ding, S. (2014, December). Why is there no income gap between the Hui Muslim minority and the Han majority in rural Ningxia, China? China Quarterly, 220.Google Scholar
  10. Huang, Y. (2016, September). Understanding China’s belt and road initiative: Motivation, framework and assessment. China Economic Review, 40.Google Scholar
  11. Jeong, J. (2015, June). Ethnic minorities in China’s western development plan. Journal of International and Area Studies, 22(1).Google Scholar
  12. John, R. M., & Rohit, M. (2005, March). Statewise estimates of poverty among religious groups in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 26.Google Scholar
  13. Khan, A. R. (2008). Growth, inequality and poverty: A comparative study of China’s experience in the periods before and after the Asian crisis. In B. Gustafsson, S. Li, & T. Sicular (Eds.), Inequality and public policy in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Khan, A. R., & Riskin, C. (2001). Inequality and poverty in China in the age of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Lai, H. (2002, October). China’s western development program. Modern China, 28(4).Google Scholar
  16. Palmer, K. (1997). China’s nationalities and nationality areas. In C. Hudson (Ed.), The China handbook. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.Google Scholar
  17. Panagariya, A., & More, V. (2014). Poverty by social, religious and economic groups in India and its largest states 1993–94 to 2011–2012. Indian Growth and Development Review, 7(2), 203–220.Google Scholar
  18. Perkins, D. (2004). Designing a regional development strategy for China. In D. Lu & W. A. W. Neilson (Eds.), China’s west region development. Singapore: World Scientific.Google Scholar
  19. Radhakrishna, R., Ravi, C., & Reddy, B. S. (2013). Assessment of well-being in multidimensional perspective. Indian Economic Review, 48(1), 131–166.Google Scholar
  20. Radhakrishna, R., & Ray, S. (Eds.). (2005a). Handbook of poverty in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Radhakrishna, R., & Ray, S. (2005b). Poverty in India: Dimensions and character. In K. Parikh & R. Radhakrishna (Eds.), India Development Report 2004–2005. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Sharma, A. K., Saluja, M. R., & Sarma, A. (2016, June 11). Macroeconomic impact of social protection programmes in India. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  23. Singh, D. P. (2009). Poverty and migration: Does moving help? In GOI (Government of India), Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, INDIA: Urban poverty report. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Thorat, S. (2014). Tackling social exclusion and marginality for poverty reduction: Indian experiences. In J. von Braun & F. W. Gatzweiler (Eds.), Marginality: Addressing the nexus of poverty, exclusion and ecology. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Thorat, S. K., & Dubey, A. (2012, March 10). Has growth been socially inclusive during 1993-94–2009-10? Economic and Political Weekly, 47(10).Google Scholar
  26. World Bank. (2011). Social protection for a changing India. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  27. Yao, S., Zhang, Z., & Feng, G. (2005). Rural–urban and regional inequality in output, income and consumption in China under economic reforms. Journal of Economic Studies, 32(1), 4–24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CommugnySwitzerland
  2. 2.University of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations