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Violent Urban Gangs. Main Perpetrators in Hate Crimes

Part of the Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice book series (IUSGENT,volume 60)

Abstract

This article will focus on the role emotions play in individuals in violent urban gangs committing hate crimes. A definition of urban gang will be provided and it will differ from the concept of urban tribe. Places where these individuals perform and act will also be explained in detail. This article will also explain signs that serve as reference within the Spanish legal context to determine whether there has been a hate crime. Questions such as “why are hate crimes not reported?” will be answered. The description of urban gangs used here does exist in our society nowadays. The use of emotions in individuals who belong to urban gangs that commit violent hate crimes will be analysed. Features found in violent urban gangs such as Skinhead will also be explained. There are two different branches in Skinhead gangs: Neonazis and Antifascists. Lastly and upon the implementation of the Framework Decision 913/2008/JAI to the Spanish penal code, an analysis on the current legislation in Spain to protect vulnerable groups as well as victims of hate crimes will be offered in detail.

Keywords

  • Sexual Orientation
  • Political Party
  • Hate Crime
  • Music Genre
  • Football Game

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

El The Co-author is Dr. of the University of Rey Juan Carlos of Madrid, being qualified CUM LAUDE in the year 2010. He’s also Director, non profit making of the Study Centre for the Initiatives of non Discrimination and Violence. Collaborator of the Raxen Association, non profit making on racism and xenophobia of the Ministry Department of Employment and Social Security. Secretary of State of immigration and emigration. Director of the summer course of the university Rey Juan Carlos of Madrid. Summer 2015. New Social realities: Hate Crimes, Racism and xenophobia.

The Co-author is Vice-Director of the non-profit Association of The Study and initiative Centre of non Discrimination and Violence. Collaborator of the Raxen Report on racism and xenophobia of the Ministry/Department of Employment and Social Security. Secretary of State of Immigration and Emigration.

Framework Decision 008/913/JAI, 20th November 2008, dealing with determine fighting against racial, xenophobic forms of statements throughout the penal code (DOULE L 328, 6th December 2008).

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Asociación Centro de Estudios e Iniciativas sobre Discriminación y Violencia CEIDIV. Registro de Asociaciones del Ministerio del Interior. España con el numero 597748.

  2. 2.

    SHERIF Muzafer, Odemis, İzmir. born in Turkey, July 1906. Considered as one of the founders of Social Psychology, also as one of its principals representatives. His work on group processes and the risen of conflicts in the interior of the groups, due to the social norms contributed with the development of the social judge theory.

  3. 3.

    García and Gil (2013) Grupos de Odio y Violencias Sociales. Editorial Rasche.

  4. 4.

    Ibarra E (2011) La España racista. Editorial Planeta. Temas de hoy, Madrid.

  5. 5.

    Salas (2002) Diario de un skin. Un topo en el movimiento neonazi español. Temas de Hoy, Barcelona.

  6. 6.

    Delgado Bueno (2012) Tratado de medicina legal y ciencias forenses. Editorial Bosch, Barcelona.

  7. 7.

    Castillo Miron and Docal Gil (2014) Odio en las Calles. Violencia Urbana, Editorial Círculo Rojo, Madrid.

  8. 8.

    García and Docal Gil (2011) Grupos de odio y Violencias Sociales. Editorial Rasche.

  9. 9.

    Madrid (2005) Insider. Un policía infiltrado en las gradas ultras. Editorial Temas de Hoy, Madrid.

  10. 10.

    García and Docal Gil (2011) Grupos de odio y Violencias Sociales. Editorial Rasche.

  11. 11.

    Anexo Informe Raxen Especial.-Articulo Análisis Símbolos del Odio.

  12. 12.

    Ley 4/2015 de 27 de abril. Estatuto de la víctima del delito.

  13. 13.

    European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance: Cuarto Informe sobre España (2011).

  14. 14.

    Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA).

  15. 15.

    Delgado Bueno (2012) Tratado de medicina legal y ciencias forenses (Forensic and law Medicine). Editorial Bosch, Barcelona.

  16. 16.

    Ibarra (2013) Los Crímenes de Odio (Hate Crimes). Editorial Planeta Temas de Hoy, Madrid.

  17. 17.

    Ibarra, Esteban, president of the Association against intolerance. He has created the European Report Raxen, against the violence and the racial hate.

  18. 18.

    Liga Antidifamacion Anti Defamation Leage (adl). An ONG which fights against the hate to Jewis in the world.

  19. 19.

    Ibarra Blanco, Esteban, president of the Association against intolerance. He has created the European Report Raxen, againts the violence and the racial hate.

  20. 20.

    “OI!” is a musical class/kind of the working class that was born in the late 70s in UK neighbourhoods, as a promising unit between the Punk and the skinhead movement.

  21. 21.

    Is it correct to associate anticapitalist skin heads with political violence? How does RASH Madrid understand the use of violence?

    It’s correct/right due to that political violence is necessary in many cases to uncover and resolve some problems.

    Within the context we’re in an important part of the fight is centred on fascist of afoot, neighbourhood Nazis, empty heads, with which trying to reason is an impossible mission.

    We’re aware that entitled in a physical war (fight) with these people isn’t the definite solution to the problem and that if we want to solve the situation from its root we can’t concentrate on picking on the pick the capitalist iceberg. Besides this, there are so many the fascist aggressions without a respond, so many assassinations, too much impunity. We defend the idea of Durruti and of all those that sate out: “We don’t discuss with fascism, We destroy fascism”. Therefore we are not going to tolerate that fascism aggressions are let free of answering.

    We understand this war/fight in its right mean and in the terms that correspond, We mean; When the answer is worth it and when there is no other solution, no unfair violence and without a motive/reason.

    All popular and workers revolutions that historically have preceded us have demonstrated that he who had the privileges has never wanted to renounce them on own will. There will always be workers willing to sell themselves in exchange for a dime. Streets struggles and fights against Nazis are only a street war in times of peace, but political violence in its different degrees are indispensable in the life of a revolutionary.

  22. 22.

    Other origins could be the Irish word of “Hooley” “wild” a comic strip of the newspaper “funny folks” where an Irish man with the same surname appeared or a street gang in Islington called Hoole.

  23. 23.

    Cantarero (2010) La huella de la bota. Editorial Planeta Temas de Hoy, Madrid.

  24. 24.

    Young (2010) Authonomy and the origin of the black bloc. A-Infos (ca).

  25. 25.

    Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo, Sala II de lo Penal 294/2003 de 16 de abril, ante recurso sobre Sentencia num. 228/2001 de la Audiencia Provincial de Madrid, Sección Segunda Rollo Penal num 55/2000 dimanante de la causa num. 1687/98 del Juzgado de Instruccion num 9 de Madrid.

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Gil, D.D., Lopez, A.F. (2017). Violent Urban Gangs. Main Perpetrators in Hate Crimes. In: Elósegui, M., Hermida, C. (eds) Racial Justice, Policies and Courts' Legal Reasoning in Europe. Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice, vol 60. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53580-7_6

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