Skip to main content

Case Study 4: United Kingdom and the Activity Model

Part of the Critical Criminological Perspectives book series (CCRP)

Abstract

The sixth chapter presents the findings from the research in the UK, especially England and Wales, combining interviews with experts and law enforcement with document analysis to build a discourse around the UK policing system against mafia and organised crime. The two historical focuses of the chapter are the events in two cities, Liverpool and London, as examples of the evolution of the organised crime discourse in the country. This chapter considers how organised crime in the UK is understood through activities rather than structures and how intelligence and multi-agency partnerships define the activity policing model.

Keywords

  • UK
  • Liverpool
  • London
  • Drugs
  • Gangs
  • Criminal intelligence

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-53568-5_6
  • Chapter length: 37 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-53568-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 6.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    An example is section 56(1) of the Terrorism Act 2000: “A person commits an offence if he directs, at any level, the activities of an organisation which is concerned in the commission of acts of terrorism”.

  2. 2.

    International Corruption Unit at the National Crime Agency – http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/about-us/what-we-do/economic-crime/international-corruption-unit-icu

  3. 3.

    Liverpool Crown Court, Judge Mr Justice Brian Langstaff, Case No. T20087213, 07-04-2009.

References

  • ACPO. (2007) Gun crime and gangs. Response to the Home Secretary. http://library.college.police.uk/docs/acpo/Gun-Crime-and-Gangs-160908.pdf Association of Chief Police Officers.

  • Ball RA and Curry GD. (1995) The logic of definition in criminology: Purposes and methods for defining “gangs”. Criminology 33(2): 225–245.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • BBC Inside Out. (2008) Gangster town. BBC Inside Out.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett T and Holloway K. (2004) Gang membership, drugs and crime in the UK. British Journal of Criminology 44(3): 305–323.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bennetto J. (1995) Caution: You are about to enter gangland Britain. The Independent. 21 August 1995. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/caution-you-are-about-to-enter-gangland-britain-1597228.html.

  • Bigo D. (2012) Globalization and security. In: Amenta E, Nash K and Scott A (eds) The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boland P. (2008) The construction of images of people and place: Labelling Liverpool and stereotyping Scousers. Cities 25(6): 355–369.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bowling B and Ross J. (2006) The Serious Organised Crime Agency – should we be afraid? Criminal Law Review December: 1019–1034.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown J. (2012) UN says Liverpool has drug-related ‘no-go areas’ like those in Brazilian favelas. The Independent. 29 February 2012. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/un-says-liverpool-has-drug-related-no-go-areas-like-those-in-brazilian-favelas-7462654.html.

  • Campana P. (2011) Eavesdropping on the Mob: the functional diversification of Mafia activities across territories. European Journal of Criminology 8(May): 213–228.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell L. (2013) Organised Crime and the Law: A Comparative Analysis, Oxford; Portland, OR: Hart Pub.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell L. (2014) Organized crime and national security: A dubious connection?. New Criminal Law Review: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal 17(2): 220–251.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell L. (2016a) “Corruption by organised crime” – a matter of definition? Current Legal Problems 1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell L. (2016b) Organised crime and corruption in the UK: Responding through law. Criminal Law Review 1(20–34).

    Google Scholar 

  • Casciani D. (2015) Cocaine in sewage: London tops league table. BBC News. 4 June 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-33009682.

  • CENTREX. (2007) Practice advice: Introduction to Intelligence-Led Policing, on behalf of Association of Chief Police Officers. Wyboston: National Centre for Policing Excellence.

    Google Scholar 

  • CJS. (2009) Dying to Belong: An In-Depth Review of Street Gangs in Britain: A Policy Report, London: The Centre for Social Justice

    Google Scholar 

  • Croft J. (2015) City of London police economic crime inquiries fall. The Financial Times. 16 November 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  • EDMCDDA. (2015) Perspectives on drugs. Wastewater analysis and drugs: A European multi-city study. Lisbon: European Drug Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards C and Jeffray C. (2014) On tap: Organised crime and the illicit trade in tobacco, alcohol and pharmaceuticals in the UK. London: RUSI, Royal United Services Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Emsley C. (2011) Crime and Society in Twentieth-century England, Harlow, England; New York: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis B, Humphreys L, Kirby S, et al. (2013) Understanding criminal careers in organised crime. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garcia B. (2006) Press Impact Analysis (1996, 2003, 2005). A Retrospective Study: UK National Press Coverage on Liverpool Before, During and After Bidding for European Capital of Culture. Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gillard M. (2015) Sex, lies and interest rates. How a “powerful criminal network” infiltrated the Bank of England. BuzzFeed UK. 30 July 2015: http://www.buzzfeed.com/michaelgillard/sex-lies-and-interest-rates-.hnq12lDPB9.

  • Goldson B. (2011) Youth in crisis? In: Goldson B (ed) Youth in Crisis?: ‘Gangs’, Territoriality and Violence. Oxon and New York,: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gottschalk P. (2009) Entrepreneurship and Organised Crime: Entrepreneurs in Illegal Business, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grande E. (1993) Accordo Criminoso e Conspiracy, Padova: Cedam.

    Google Scholar 

  • HM CPS Inspectorate. (2009) Report on the Inspection of the Organised Crime Division of CPS Headquarters. Avaialble at http://www.hmcpsi.gov.uk/documents/reports/DIV/OCD/OCD_HQ_Sep09_rpt.pdf,: Her Majesty’s Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate.

  • HM Government. (2014) UK anti-corruption plan. London: The Stationery Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs D. (1995a) Bad Business: Professional Crime in Modern Britain, Oxford University Press,.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs D. (1995b) Professional Criminals, Aldershot: Dartmouth.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs D. (1997) Professional crime: Change, continuity and the enduring myth of the underworld. Sociology 31(1): 57–72.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs D. (1998) Going down the glocal: The local context of organised crime. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 37(4): 407–422.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs D. (2013a) Lush Life: Constructing Organized Crime in the UK, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs D. (2013) Members’ Lecture on ‘Organised Crime in the UK’. RUSI – Royal United Service Institute. London, 12 July 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Affairs Committee. (1994) Organised Crime, London: H.M.S.O.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2004) One step ahead. A 21st century strategy to defeat organised crime. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2009) Extending Our Reach: A Comprehensive Approach to Tackling Serious Organised Crime, London: Stationery Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2010) Policing in the 21st Century: Reconnecting police and the people. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2011a) Local to global: Reducing the risk from organised crime. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2011b) National Crime Agency. A plan for the creation of a national crime-fighting capability. London: The Stationery Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2011c) A new approach to fighting crime. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2012) Crime and court bill fact sheet: The National Crime Agency, overview. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2013) Serious and Organised Crime Strategy, London: The Stationery Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home Office. (2014) Explanatory Notes, Serious Crime Act 2015 (HL), 7 November 2014. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/Acts/cAct/20142015/0116/en/15116en.htm.

  • Home Office and HM Treasury. (2016) Action Plan for Anti-money Laundering and Counter-terrorist Finance, London: The Stationery Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Humphries J. (2015) Drugs kingpin Chris Welsh masterminded heroin plot from prison cell. The Liverpool Echo. 18 December 2015: http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/drugs-kingpin-chris-welsh-masterminded-10621851.

  • Kirby S. (2013) Effective policing?: Implementation in Theory and Practice, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klein M. (2001) Resolving the eurogang paradox. In: Klein MW, Kerner HJ, Maxson CL, et al. (eds) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the US and Europe. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kokosalakis C, Bagnall G, Selby M, et al. (2006) Place image and urban regeneration in Liverpool. International Journal of Consumer Studies 30(4): 389–397.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lashmar P. (1998) Adams family values. The Independent. 18 September 1998: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/adams-family-values-1198768.html

  • Lavorgna A, Lombardo R and Sergi A. (2013) Organised crime in three regions: Comparing the Veneto, Liverpool and Chicago. Trends in Organized Crime 16(3): 265–285.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lavorgna A and Sergi A. (2016) Serious, therefore organised? A critique of the emerging “cyber-organised crime” rhetoric in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Cyber Criminology 10(2): 170–187.

    Google Scholar 

  • Law Commission. (2007) Conspiracy and attempt report. London: Law Commission of England and Wales,.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lees A. (2011) The Hurricane Port: A Social History of Liverpool, London: Random House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levi M. (2004) The making of the United Kingdom’s organised crime control policies. In: Fijnaut C and Paoli L (eds) Organised Crime in Europe: Concepts, Patterns, and Control Policies in the European Union and Beyond. The Netherlands: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levi M and Smith A. (2002) A Comparative analysis of Organised Crime Conspiracy Legislation and Practice and their relevance to England and Wales, London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marsh K, Wilson L and Kenehan R. (2012) The impact of globalisation on the UK market for illicit drugs: Evidence from interviews with convicted drug traffickers. In: Costa Storti C and de Grauwe P (eds) Illicit Trade and the Global Economy Cambridge, MA: Massachussetts Institute of Technology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martini M. (2015) Unexplained wealth orders as an anti-corruption tool. Anti-Corruption Helpdesk. https://http://www.transparency.org/files/content/corruptionqas/Unexplained_wealth_order_as_an_anti-corruption_tool_2015.pdf Transparency International UK.

  • Merseyside Police. (2013) Excellent policing for Merseyside. An in-depth look at our organisation. Liverpool: Merseyside Police.

    Google Scholar 

  • Met Police. (2013) Metropolitan Police Service Organisational Structure. http://www.met.police.uk/about/charts/mps-orgchart-dec2012.pdf Accessed 14 July 2013.

  • Miller WB. (1975) Violence by Youth Gangs and Youth Groups as a Crime Problem in Major American Cities., Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mills H, Skodbo S and Blyth P. (2013) Understanding organised crime: Estimating the scale and the social and economic costs. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morton J. (2002) Gangland Today, London: Time Warner.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murden J. (2006) City of change and challenge’: Liverpool since 1945. In: Belchem J (ed) Liverpool 800, Culture, Character and History. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Geographic. (2010) Britain’s underworld: Liverpool.

    Google Scholar 

  • NCA. (2015) National strategic assessment of serious and organised crime 2015. London: National Crime Agency.

    Google Scholar 

  • NCIS. (1993) An outline assessment of the threat and impact by organised/enterprise crime upon United Kingdom Interests. London: National Criminal Intelligence Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • NCIS. (2000) The national intelligence model. National Criminal Intelligence Service. London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ormerod D and Hooper A. (2012) Blackstone’s Criminal Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearson G and Hobbs D. (2004) ‘E’ is for enterprise: Middle level drug markets in ecstasy and stimulants. Addiction Research & Theory 12(6): 565–576.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pyman M, Hughes W and Muravska J. (2011) Organised crime, corruption, and the vulnerability of defence and security forces. London: Transparency International UK.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rathbone JP. (2012) Money laundering: Taken to the cleaners. Financial Times.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2012) Mersey heat: Gang culture in Liverpool. Jane’s Intelligence Review (February).

    Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2014a) Organised crime in criminal law. Conspiracy and membership offences in Italian, English and international frameworks. King’s Law Journal 25(2): 185–200.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2014b) Structure versus activity. Policing organized crime in Italy and in the UK, distance and convergence. Policing. A Journal of Policy and Practice 8(1): 69–78.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2015a) Criminal minds – social science helps tackling organised crime. Jane’s Intelligence Review (January): 44–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2015b) Divergent mind-sets, convergent policies. Policing models against organised crime in Italy and in England within International Frameworks. European Journal of Criminology 12(6): 658–680.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2015c) Organised crime in English criminal law: Lessons from the United States on conspiracy and criminal enterprise. Journal of Money Laundering Control 18(2): 182–201.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2016a) National security vs criminal law. Perspectives, doubts and concerns on the criminalisation of organised crime in England and Wales. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research 22(4): 713–729.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sergi A. (2016b) “Three Tales /Two Threats”. prosecutors in Italy, England and the United States narrate national and transnational organised crime. In: Van Duyne PC, Sheinost M, Antonopoulos GA, et al. (eds) Narrative on Organises Crime in Europe. Criminals, Corrupters & Policy. Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharpe J. (2004) Dick Turpin: The Myth of the English Highwayman, London: Profile Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shropshire S and MacFarquhar M. (2002) Developing multi agency strategies to address the street gang culture and reduce gun violence among young people. Steve Shopshire and Michael MacFarquhar Consultancy Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silverstone D. (2011) From Triads to snakeheads: Organised crime and illegal migration within Britain’s Chinese community. Global Crime 12(2): 93–111.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Silverstone D and Savage S. (2010) Farmers, factories and funds: Organised crime and illicit drugs cultivation within the British Vietnamese community. Global Crime 11(1): 16–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Simister AP, Spencer JR, Sullivan GR, et al. (2010) Simester and Sullivan’s Criminal Law: Theory and Doctrine, Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith R. (2013) Rescripting criminal identity: A ‘close reading’ of contemporary biographies of British criminals as entrepreneurship discourse. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy 7(4): 316–339.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • SOCA. (2010) Annual Plan 2010/11. London: Serious Organised Crime Agency.

    Google Scholar 

  • Southwell D. (2009) The History of Organized Crime: The True Story and Secrets of Global Gangland, London: Carlton Books Limited.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talani LS. (2013) London: The laundry of choice? Money laundering in the City of London; Leila Simona Talani. In: Talani LS, Clarkson A and Pacheco Pardo R (eds) Dirty Cities. Towards a Political Economy of the Underground in Global Cities. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Economist. (2003) Colourblind crooks: Organised crime is a model of ethnic harmony. The Economist.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Economist. (2015) Young guns. Gun crime is falling. But among Liverpool’s teenagers it is stubborn. The Economist Print Edition. 21 November 2015(http://www.economist.com/news/britain/21678820-gun-crime-falling-among-liverpools-teenagers-it-stubborn-young-guns).

  • The Law Commission. (1976) Conspiracy and criminal law reform report. London: The Stationery Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Scottish Government. (2015) Scotland’s serious organised crime strategy. Edimburgh: The Scottish Government Crown Copyright.

    Google Scholar 

  • Townsend M. (2008) Colombian ‘hit’ that set off a UK cocaine war. The Observer. 18 May 2008: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/may/18/drugstrade.internationalcrime.

  • Tweedie N. (2007) Britain’s first family of crime. The Telegraph. 08 February 2007: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/features/3631556/Britains-first-family-of-crime.html.

  • UNODC. (2004) Legislative guides for the implementation of the United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime and the protocol thereto. New York: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker C. (2009) Prosecuting terrorism: The Old Bailey versus Belmarsh. Amicus Curiae 79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wall D and Chistyakova Y. (2015) United Kingdom. In: Savona EU and Riccardi M (eds) From Illegal Markets to Legitimate Businesses: The Portfolio of Organised Crime in Europe. Final Report of Project OCP – Organised Crime Portfolio (www.ocportfolio.eu). Trento: Transcrime.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weerman F, Maxson C, Esbensen FA, et al. (2009) Eurogang Program Manual: Background, development, and use of the Eurogang instruments in multi-site, multi-method comparative research. University of Missouri: Eurogang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woodiwiss M and Hobbs D. (2009) Organized evil and the Atlantic alliance. Moral panics and the rhetoric of organized crime policing in America and Britain. British Journal of Criminology 49(1): 106–128.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wright A. (2006) Organised Crime, Cullompton: Willan.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Sergi, A. (2017). Case Study 4: United Kingdom and the Activity Model. In: From Mafia to Organised Crime. Critical Criminological Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53568-5_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53568-5_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-53567-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-53568-5

  • eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)