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Case Study 2: United States of America and the Enterprise Model

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Part of the Critical Criminological Perspectives book series (CCRP)

Abstract

The fourth chapter presents the findings from the research in the US, combining interviews with experts and law enforcement with document analysis to build a discourse around the US federal policing system against mafia and organised crime. The two historical focuses of the chapter are the events surrounding Italian-American (La) Cosa Nostra and the focus on transnational crime following the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001. This chapter considers the crucial legacy of the theoretical approaches developed in the US for an understanding of both mafia and organised crime. It presents the concept of enterprise and pattern of racketeering activities as core element of the institutional response to organised crime and mafia in the country within the US enterprise policing model.

Keywords

  • US
  • Transnational organised crime
  • RICO Act
  • Enterprise
  • Alien conspiracy

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Fig. 4.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    FBI – Italian Organized Crime – https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia.

  2. 2.

    Remarks Prepared for Delivery by Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey on International Organized Crime at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington D.C., 23 April 2008, available at: https://www.justice.gov/archive/ag/speeches/2008/ag-speech-080425.html.

  3. 3.

    Statement of Assistant Attorney General Lanny A. Breuer Before the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism, Washington, D.C. – Tuesday, 1 November, 2011. Available at: http://www.frank-cs.org/cms/pdfs/DOJ/DOJ_Breuer_TOC.pdf.

  4. 4.

    Remarks Prepared for Delivery by Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey on International Organized Crime at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C.- Wednesday, 23 April, 2008. Available at: https://www.justice.gov/archive/ag/speeches/2008/ag-speech-080425.html.

  5. 5.

    Remarks Prepared for Delivery by Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey on International Organized Crime at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C.- Wednesday, 23 April, 2008. Available at: https://www.justice.gov/archive/ag/speeches/2008/ag-speech-080425.html.

  6. 6.

    Public Law No. 91-452, § 1, 84 Stat. 922 (1970) (Congressional Statement of Findings and Purpose).

  7. 7.

    He is referring to Professor George Robert Blakey (born 7 January 1936, in Burlington, North Carolina), an American attorney and law professor who drafted the RICO Act and wrote on the subject of enterprise criminality during his time at Notre Dame and Cornell Law Schools.

  8. 8.

    S. 2187, 89th Cong., 1st Sess., 111 Cong. Rec. 14,680 (1965)

  9. 9.

    Criminal Laws and Procedures, Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Criminal Laws and Procedures of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 89th Cong., 2d Sess. 32 (1966), at 32–37.

  10. 10.

    18 U.S. Code § 1961 – Definitions – s.4

  11. 11.

    United States v. Turkette – Supreme Court of the United States, 1981-452 U.S. 576.

  12. 12.

    United States v. Bledsoe – Supreme Court of the United States, 674 F.2d 647 (8th Cir. 1982).

  13. 13.

    See, among others, United States v. Anderson, 626 F.2d 1358, 1365 (8th Cir.1980) and again Turkette.

  14. 14.

    In United States v. Boyle, No. 07–1309 556 U. S. (2009), the Court stated that no reference to “ascertainable structure” is mandated and that this precise language is not required for the jury.

  15. 15.

    Public Law No. 91-452, § 1, 84 Stat. 922 (1970) (Congressional Statement of Findings and Purpose).

  16. 16.

    National Organization for Women, Inc. v. Scheidler, 510 U.S. 249 (1994).

  17. 17.

    Sedima S.P.R.L. v. Imrex Co., Inc. – Supreme Court of the United States, 1985 – 473 U.S. 479.

  18. 18.

    FBI – Italian Organized Crime – https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia.

  19. 19.

    The DOJ’s Civil RICO Manual for Federal Attorneys (DOJ, 2007:157) defines a consent decree as “a voluntary agreement, subject to the court’s approval, entered into by consent of the parties to a lawsuit to resolve a lawsuit”. “The parties waive their right to litigate the issues involved in the case and thus save themselves the time, expense, and inevitable risk of litigation” United States v. Armour & Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971).

  20. 20.

    United States v. Weisman, 624 F.2d 1118 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 449 U.S. 871 (1980).

  21. 21.

    Interviewees at the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office did not consent to be recorded. Notes have been taken during the interviews and integrated afterwards for clarity and accuracy. Direct quotes are therefore not possible unless they have been annotated as such.

  22. 22.

    Morrison v. Nat’l Australia Bank Ltd., 130 S. Ct. 2869, 2878 (2010)

  23. 23.

    See, for example, Norex Petroleum Ltd. v. Access Indus, Inc., 622 F.3d 148 (2d Cir. 2010), amended by 631 F.3d. 29, 31–33 (2d Cir. 2010); European Community v. RJR Nabisco, Inc., 2011 WL 843957, (E.D.N.Y. 8 March 2011); Cedeño v. Intech Group, Inc., 733 F. Supp. 2d 471, 472 (S.D.N.Y. 2010), which all rejected RICO’s extraterritoriality.

  24. 24.

    FBI Stories 13/02/2009 – Move Over, Mafia. The New Face of Organized Crime, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2009/february/orgcrime_021309.

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Sergi, A. (2017). Case Study 2: United States of America and the Enterprise Model. In: From Mafia to Organised Crime. Critical Criminological Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53568-5_4

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