Planning and Management Frameworks for Renewable Ocean Energy

Chapter

Abstract

Renewable ocean energy has huge potential to contribute to addressing both climate change and energy security concerns. To realise this potential, it is necessary to have planning and management frameworks that facilitate development of commercial-scale marine renewable energy farms, which harvest offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy. The primary focus of this chapter is ocean energy, namely wave and tidal sources. Currently, consenting and legal processes are often cited as a barrier to efficient and expedient deployment of devices in many locations internationally. This can create high levels of “regulatory risk” which can, in turn, have detrimental consequences for project development timelines and budgets as well as wider negative influence on project investors and financiers. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is a relatively new approach to analysing and allocating parts of marine spaces for specific uses or objectives in order to achieve ecological, economic, and social objectives. MSP does not always result in ocean zoning but instead involves integrated approaches to prioritising uses and activities. As a process, MSP is ecosystem-based, integrated, adaptive, strategic, and participatory—stakeholders are actively engaged in the process. It does not replace single-sector planning or management, but it has a number of advantages that may benefit the development of the renewable ocean energy sector. It can provide greater certainty to the private sector in planning new investments and should reduce conflicts between incompatible users and activities. It should also promote more efficient use of marine resources and space, indicate opportunities for coexistence of activities, and facilitate the implementation of a streamlined permitting process for marine activities. This chapter outlines the planning and management frameworks in place for renewable ocean energy in countries that collaborate through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Technology Collaboration Programme around the world. A particular emphasis is placed on MSP and how it influences the planning of energy activities currently or how it will influence future ocean energy activity. Implementation of MSP varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and can take many different forms. This chapter provides an overview of how the requirements of the ocean energy sector are taken into account when designing marine planning systems, how scientific information is reflected in the process, and the tools used to implement MSP. It also identifies how possible or currently experienced conflicts between different sectors or users are managed. The chapter concludes with a section on the key factors that limit implementation of MSP.

References

  1. BOEM/FERC (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). (2012). BOEM/FERC Guidelines on Regulation of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects on the OCS. Version 2, 19 July 2012. http://www.ferc.gov/industries//hydropower/gen-info/licensing/hydrokinetics/pdf/mms080309.pdf.
  2. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. (2015). Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan. Volume 1: Management and Administration. http://www.mass.gov/eea/waste-mgnt-recycling/coasts-and-oceans/mass-ocean-plan/2015-final-ocean-plan.html.
  3. Copping, A., Sather, N., Hanna, L., Whiting, J., Zydlewski, G., Staines, G., et al. (2016). Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World. http://tethys.pnnl.gov/publications/state-of-the-science-2016.
  4. DAERA (Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs). (2015). A Report by the Department of the Environment on the Marine Plan Process in Northern Ireland. https://www.daera-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/doe/marine-report-plan-process-in-ni-oct-2015.pdf.
  5. DAERA (Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs). (2016). Northern Ireland Guidance on Marine Licensing Overview and Process, Under Part 4 of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 (May 2016 version). https://www.daera-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/doe/marine-licensing-guidance-overview-and-process-under-part-4-marine-and-coastal-access-act-2009-may-2016.pdf.
  6. DCENR (Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources). (2014). Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan. Department of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources, Dublin. http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/836DD5D9-7152-4D76-9DA0-81090633F0E0/0/20140204DCENROffshoreRenewableEnergyDevelopmentPlan.pdf.
  7. DEA (Department of Environmental Affairs). (2014). South Africa’s National Coastal Management Programme. Cape Town, South Africa. https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/nationalcoastal_managementprogramme.pdf.
  8. DEA (Department of Environmental Affairs). (2016). Draft Marine Spatial Planning Framework. Government Gazette No. 40219, 19 August, 2016, 41 pages. https://www.greengazette.co.za/notices/draft-marine-spatial-planning-framework-published-for-public-comment_20160819-GGN-40219-00936.pdf.
  9. Department of Conservation. (2011). New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010: National Implementation Plan. Prepared by the NZCPS 2010 Implementation Steering Group. July 2011. http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/marine-and-coastal/coastal-management/nz-coastal-policy-final-implementation-plan.pdf.
  10. Department of Conservation/NZCPS. (2010). Implementation Steering Group. 2011. New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010-National Implementation Plan. http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/marine-and-coastal/coastal-management/nz-coastal-policy-final-implementation-plan.pdf.
  11. DECC (Department of Energy and Climate Change). (2011). Decommissioning of offshore renewable energy installations under the Energy Act 2004: Guidance notes for industry. DECC, London, UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/80786/orei_guide.pdf.
  12. DECLG (Department of Environment, Community and Local Government). (2013). Maritime Area and Foreshore (Amendment) Bill 2013. DECLG, Dublin, Ireland. http://www.environ.ie/planning/foreshore/general-scheme-maritime-area-and-foreshore-amendment-bill.
  13. DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). (2011). Guidance on Marine Licensing under Part 4 of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009. DEFRA, London, England. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/330849/Guidance_RFI_6666.pdf.
  14. DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). (2014). East Inshore and East Offshore Marine Plans. DEFRA, London, England. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/312496/east-plan.pdf.
  15. DOENI (Department of the Environment Northern Ireland). (2013). Northern Ireland Marine Plan Statement of Public Participation. DOENI, Belfast, Northern Ireland. https://www.daera-ni.gov.uk/publications/marine-plan-statement-public-participation.
  16. Dubbs, L., Keeler, A. G., & O’Meara, T. (2013). Permitting, risk and marine hydrokinetic energy development. Electricity Journal, 26, 64–74. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2013.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Enablers Task Force. (2015). Enablers Task Force on Marine Spatial Planning—Report to the Inter-Departmental Marine Coordination Group. http://www.ouroceanwealth.ie/publications.
  18. Environmental Protection Authority/Te Mana Rauhī Taiao. (2013). What makes a proposal nationally significant? http://www.epa.govt.nz/Publications/EPA_Fact_Sheet_What_makes_a_proposal_nationally_significant.pdf. (Factsheet)
  19. Fang, Q. H., Zhang, R., Zhang, L. P., & Hong, H. S. (2011). Marine functional zoning in China: Experience and prospects. Coastal Management, 39(6), 656–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feng, R., Chen, X., Li, P., Zhou, L., & Yu, J. (2016). Development of China’s marine functional zoning: A preliminary analysis. Ocean and Coastal Management, 131, 39–44. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.08.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. (2002). Canada’s Oceans Strategy Our Oceans, Our Future: Policy and Operational Framework for Integrated Management of Estuarine, Coastal and Marine Environments in Canada. Published by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Oceans Directorate, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. http://waves-vagues.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/264678.pdf.
  22. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. (2007). Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Ocean Management Plan. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/333115.pdf.
  23. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. (2013). Draft Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area Plan. http://www.pncima.org/media/documents/pdf/draft-pncima-plan-may-27–2013.pdf.
  24. Galparsoro, I., Liria, P., Legorburu, I., Bald, J., Chust, G., Ruiz-Minguela, P., et al. (2012). A Marine Spatial Planning approach to select suitable areas for installing wave energy converters on the Basque continental shelf (Bay of Biscay). Coastal Management, 40, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Government Communications. (2015). South Africa Yearbook 2014/2015. Chapter 8: Energy, edited by E. Tibane and M. Honwane. pp. 135–152. http://www.gcis.gov.za/sites/www.gcis.gov.za/files/docs/resourcecentre/Energy2015.pdf.
  26. Government of Ireland. (2012). Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth—An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland Roadmap. http://www.ouroceanwealth.ie/about-plan.
  27. Hauraki Gulf Forum. (2011). Spatial Planning for the Gulf: An international review of marine spatial planning initiatives and application to the Hauraki Gulf. http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/SiteCollectionDocuments/aboutcouncil/committees/haurakigulfforum/meetings/haurakigulfforumagitem15att20110411.pdf.
  28. Headquarters for Ocean Policy. (2012). Policy on Initiatives to Promote the Use of Maritime Renewable Energy. http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/kaiyou/energy/torikumihousin.pdf. (in Japanese).
  29. Headquarters for Ocean Policy. (2013). Basic Plan on Ocean Policy. http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/kaiyou/kihonkeikaku/130426kihonkeikaku_e.pdf (English translation).
  30. HM Government (Her Majesty’s Government). (2009). Our seas: a shared resource, high level marine objectives. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/182486/ourseas-2009update.pdf.
  31. HM Government (Her Majesty’s Government). (2011). UK Marine Policy Statement. HM Government, Northern Ireland Executive, Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly Government. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-marine-policy-statement.
  32. Hildebrand, L. P., & Schröder-Hinrichs, J.-U. (2014). Maritime and marine: synonyms, solitudes or schizophrenia? WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 13(2), 173–176. doi:10.1007/s13437-014-0072-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. IEA-OES. (2015). Ocean Energy Systems Annual Report 2015. https://report2015.ocean-energy-systems.org/.
  34. Johnson, C. B. (2014). Advances in marine spatial planning: zoning earth’s last frontier. Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 29, 191.Google Scholar
  35. Kaiser, M. J., Snyder, B. (2010). Offshore Wind Energy Installation and Decommissioning Cost Estimation in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Herndon, VA. TA&R study 648. 340 pp. http://www.bsee.gov/uploadedfiles/bsee/research_and_training/technology_assessment_and_research/648aa.pdf.
  36. McCuaig, J., Herbert, G. (Eds.). (2013). Review and Evaluation of the Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3025: xii + 95p.Google Scholar
  37. Meaden, G. J., Aguilar-Manjarrez, J., Corner, R., O’Hagan, A. M., & Cardia, F. (2016). Marine spatial planning for the Gulf (RECOFI) area. FAO, Rome, Italy: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper.Google Scholar
  38. Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo. (2009). Estudio Estratégico Ambiental del Litoral Español para la Instalación de Parques Eólicos Marinos. Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo, Madrid. http://www.aeeolica.org/uploads/documents/562-estudio-estrategico-ambiental-del-litoral-espanol-para-la-instalacion-de-parques-eolicos-marinos_mityc.pdf.
  39. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment/New Zealand. (2015). Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge. Sustainable Seas National Science Challenge presentation from the New Zealand Marine Sciences conference, 9 July 2015. http://www.niwa.co.nz/static/media/assets/Sustainable_Seas_NZMSS_July_2015.pdf.
  40. Ministry of Economic Development. (2011). New Zealand Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy 2011–2016. New Zealand Government, Wellington, New Zealand. https://www.eeca.govt.nz/assets/Resources-EECA/nz-energy-strategy-2011.pdf.
  41. National Ocean Council. (2013). National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/national_ocean_policy_implementation_plan.pdf.
  42. Natural Resources Canada. (2011). Charting the Course: Canada’s Marine Renewable Energy Technology Roadmap. http://www.marinerenewables.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/MRE_Roadmap_e.pdf.
  43. New Zealand Department of Conservation. (2010). New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand. http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/marine-and-coastal/coastal-management/nz-coastal-policy-statement-2010.pdf.
  44. New Zealand Department of Conservation. (2011). New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010: National Implementation Plan. Prepared by the NZCPS 2010 Implementation Steering Group. July 2011. http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/marine-and-coastal/coastal-management/nz-coastal-policy-final-implementation-plan.pdf.
  45. Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. (2009). Integrated Management of the Marine Environment of the Norwegian Sea. Report No.37 (2008–2009) to the Storting. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/report-no.-37-to-the-storting-2008-2009/id560159/. (English version).
  46. Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. (2011). First update of the Integrated Management Plan for the Marine Environment of the Barents Sea − Lofoten Area. Meld. St. 10 (2010–2011) Report to the Storting (White Paper). [English version]. http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/Global/Havforum/Meld.%20St.10%20(2010-2011)%20Report%20to%20the%20Storting%20(white%20paper)%20First%20update%20of%20the%20Integrated%20Management%20Plan%20for%20the%20Marine%20Environment%20of%20the%20Barents%20Sea-Lofoten%20Area.pdf.
  47. Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. (2013). Integrated Management of the Marine Environment of the North Sea and Skagerrak (Management Plan). Meld. St. 37 (2012–2013) Report to the Storting (White Paper). http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/Global/Havforum/Meld.%20St.37%20(2012-2013)%20Report%20to%20the%20Stortinng%20(white%20paper)%20Integrated%20Management%20of%20the%20Marine%20Environment%20of%20the%20North%20Sea%20and%20Skagerrak.pdf. (English version).
  48. Nova Scotia Department of Energy and Marine Renewables. (2014). Statement of best practices for in-stream tidal energy development and operation: standards and practices for in-stream tidal energy. http://energy.novascotia.ca/sites/default/files/files/Statement%20of%20Best%20Practices%20Booklet.pdf.
  49. Ocean Energy Forum. (2016). Ocean Energy Strategic Roadmap 2016, building ocean energy for Europe. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/maritimeforum/en/frontpage/1036
  50. OEER. (2008). Fundy Tidal Energy Strategic Environmental Assessment Final Report. Prepared by the OEER Association for the Nova Scotia Department of Energy. Submitted April, 2008. http://www.oera.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/FINAL-SEA-REPORT.pdf.
  51. O’Hagan, A. M., & Lewis, A. W. (2011). The existing law and policy framework for ocean energy development in Ireland. Marine Policy, 35(6), 772–783. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. O’Hagan, A. M. (2012). A review of international consenting regimes for marine renewables: are we moving towards better practice? In 4th International conference on ocean energy, 17 October 2012, Dublin, Ireland.Google Scholar
  53. O’Hagan, A. M. (2014). Consenting and environmental challenges for ocean energy. Presentation made to the European Commission’s Ocean Energy Forum, Dublin, 11 June 2014.Google Scholar
  54. O’Hagan, A. M. (2015). Chapter 18: Regulation of marine renewable energy. In R. Warner & S. Kaye (Eds.) Routledge handbook of maritime regulation and enforcement. Routledge, UK. ISBN 9780415704458.Google Scholar
  55. Province of Nova Scotia. (2012). Nova Scotia Marine Renewable Energy Strategy. http://energy.novascotia.ca/sites/default/files/Nova-Scotia-Marine-Renewable-Energy-Strategy-May-2012.pdf.
  56. RenewableUK. (2013). Cumulative Impact Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms. http://www.renewableuk.com/en/publications/index.cfm/cumulative-impact-assessment-guidelines.
  57. Simas, T., O’Hagan, A. M., O’Callaghan, J., Hamawi, S., Magagna, D., Bailey, I., et al. (2015). Review of consenting processes for ocean energy in selected European Union Member States. International Journal of Marine Energy, 9, 41–59. doi:10.1016/j.ijome.2014.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI). (2010). Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) in the Republic of Ireland. Environmental Report. Produced for SEAI by AECOM, Metoc and CMRC. http://www.seai.ie/Renewables/Ocean_Energy/Offshore_Renewable_SEA.
  59. Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM). (2014). Marine spatial planning - Current status 2014 National planning in Sweden’s territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Version from March 2014 (now updated). https://www.havochvatten.se/download/18.44319c4a145d364b807436c/1448618458195/marine-spatial-planning-current-status-2014-english.pdf.
  60. The Crown Estate. (2014). The Crown Estate Role in Offshore Renewable Energy Developments: Briefing (January 2014 version). http://www.thecrownestate.co.uk/media/5411/ei-the-crown-estate-role-in-offshore-renewable-energy.pdf.
  61. The Scottish Government. (2012a). Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Waters - Draft Regional Locational Guidance. Parts 1–11. August 2012. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh, Scotland. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/marine/marineenergy/Planning/windrlg.
  62. The Scottish Government. (2012b). Offshore Wave Energy in Scottish Waters—Draft Regional Locational Guidance. Parts 1–6. August 2012. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh, Scotland. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/marine/marineenergy/Planning/waverlg.
  63. The Scottish Government. (2012c). Offshore Tidal Energy in Scottish Waters - Draft Regional Locational Guidance. Parts 1–7. August 2012. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh, Scotland. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/marine/marineenergy/Planning/tidalrlg.
  64. The Scottish Government. (2012d). Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland’s Seas - Research Implementation Strategy. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/marine/marineenergy/ris.
  65. The Scottish Government. (2012e). Marine Scotland Licensing and Consents Manual, covering Marine Renewables and Offshore Wind Energy Development. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0040/00405806.pdf.
  66. The Scottish Government. (2015a). Scotland’s National Marine Plan (NMP)—A Single Framework for Managing Our Seas. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  67. The Scottish Government. (2015b). Scotland’s National Marine Plan—A Single Framework for Managing Our Seas. A Summary of Objectives and Policies. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  68. The Scottish Government. (2016a). Marine Scotland: Crown Estate—Consultation on Proposals for Establishing the Interim Body to Manage the Crown Estate Assets in Scotland Post-Devolution. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0050/00502476.pdf.
  69. The Scottish Government. (2016b). Survey, Deploy and Monitoring Licensing Policy Guidance (Version 2, 4 April 2016). http://www.gov.scot/Topics/marine/Licensing/marine/Applications/SDM.
  70. Tyldesley, D. (2004). coastal and marine spatial planning framework for the Irish Sea Pilot Project. Report to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. UK: DEFRA http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/Tyldesley%20Marine%20spatial%20planning.pdf.
  71. UNESCO: Ehler, C., & Douvere, F. (2009). Marine Spatial Planning: a step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme. IOC Manual and Guides No. 53, ICAM Dossier No. 6. UNESCO, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  72. United States Department of the Interior. (2016). Guidelines for Information Requirements for a Renewable Energy Construction and Operations Plan (COP). Office of Renewable Energy Programs, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Version 3.0, April 7, 2016. http://www.boem.gov/COP-Guidelines/.
  73. Van Cleve, F. B., & Geerlofs, S. H. (2013). Engagement in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities in Support of Offshore Wind and Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment. Final Report. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE–AC05–76RL01830, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  74. Welsh Assembly Government. (2011). Consultation Document Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales. http://gov.wales/docs/desh/consultation/110216marineconsultationen.pdf.
  75. Welsh Government. (2015). Marine Planning section on Welsh Government website: http://gov.wales/topics/environmentcountryside/marineandfisheries/marine-planning/?lang=en. Last updated on 25 April 2015, Accessed 19 June 15.
  76. Xu, W., Li, F., & Xia, D. (2014). Review of China policy of OED sea use management. Ocean and Coastal Management, 88, 38–42. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhang, H. S. (2003). Summary of the national marine functional zoning scheme. Beijing, China: Ocean Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MaREI Centre, Environmental Research InstituteUniversity College CorkCountry CorkIreland

Personalised recommendations