Non-Classical Correlations in Information Processing
In purely functional terms, a computation transforms a human readable bit string referred to as the input or question into another human readable bit string referred to as the output or answer. We are assuming here that irrespective of the nature of the input or output, information can always be expressed in the simplest possible language with only two elements in its alphabet; namely binary. In the process of getting from the input to the output, the sequence of steps - the algorithm - would employ additional resources like computational space (memory) computational time etc. Quantum information processing brings new resources into the mix; entanglement and quantum coherence being the the most prominent among them.
The technical content of this lecture note is based on work done - some of it published, some not - with several collaborators; particularly so with Animesh Datta, Carlton M Caves, Kavan Modi and Cesar Rodriguez-Rosario. The author’s role here was to primarily put some of the key ideas and results together into a coherent narrative.
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