Combining and Pooling of Time Series on Life Satisfaction in the USA, Japan, The Netherlands and Spain

  • Tineke de Jonge
  • Ruut Veenhoven
  • Wim Kalmijn
Part of the Social Indicators Research Series book series (SINS, volume 68)


We applied the Reference Distribution Method to pool time series on life satisfaction in the USA, Japan, The Netherlands and Spain, using results from the World Values Survey to derive reference distributions from. This resulted in consistent time series spanning almost 60 years for Japan, 40 years for The Netherlands and 35 years for the USA and Spain. Life satisfaction in Japan and The Netherlands was almost equal in the eighties, but at present differs more than one point in favor of The Netherlands. Life satisfaction in Spain reached its lowest value of 6.0 in 2012, but has increased since then to 6.3 in 2015.


Time Series Life Satisfaction Beta Distribution Survey Item Mode Change 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tineke de Jonge
    • 1
  • Ruut Veenhoven
    • 1
  • Wim Kalmijn
    • 1
  1. 1.Erasmus Happiness Economics Research OrganisationErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands

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