Removal of Copper, Iron and Zinc from Soil Washing Effluents Containing Ethylenediaminedisuccinic Acid as Chelating Agent Through Sunlight Driven Nano-TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Processes

  • Laura Clarizia
  • Marco Race
  • Luca Onotri
  • Ilaria Di Somma
  • Nunzio Fiorentino
  • Roberto Andreozzi
  • Raffaele MarottaEmail author


The aim of the present study is the application of integrated solar nano-TiO2 based photocatalytic processes for the removal of copper, iron, zinc and (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS), used as chelating agent, from soil washing effluents produced by the remediation of samples of potentially polluted soils taken in the “Land of Fires” (Italy). Removal efficiencies of 93.5% (copper), 99.6% (iron), 99.4% (zinc), 97.2% (EDDS) and 80.7% (TOC) were reached through sunlight driven photocatalytic treatments carried out in parabolic trough collectors located in Naples (Italy). The removal degrees were achieved for an incident UVA solar energy per unit volume (Q j,n ) of 580 kJ L−1, estimated by taking into account both the effective irradiated surface area of the photoreactor (9.79 × 10−2 m2) and the local solar irradiances collected during the experiments. The combined nano-TiO2-photocatalytic processes applied were shown to sufficiently decontaminate the soil washing effluents to permit the recycling in the soil washing treatment or discharging to public sewers. The study suggests that the two-step solar photocatalytic process investigated can be really adopted as a useful solution for the decontamination of soil washing streams from some heavy metals and chelating organic agents.


Solar nano-photocatalysis Soil washing effluent EDDS Metal removal Sacrificial nano-photocatalysis “Land of Fires” 



This study was carried out within the EU Project LIFE11 ENV/IT/000275 (ECOREMED).


  1. Albanese S, De Luca ML, De Vivo B, Lima A, Rezzi G (2008) Relationships between heavy metal distribution and cancer mortality rates in the Campania region Italy. In: De Vivo B, Belkin HE, Lima A (eds) Environmental geochemistry: site characterization, data analysis and case histories. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 387–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JE, Mueller SA, Kim BR (2007) Incomplete oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in chemical oxygen demand analysis. Water Environ Res 79:1043–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandala ER, Velasco Y, Torres LG (2008) Decontamination of soil washing wastewater using solar driven advanced oxidation processes. J Hazard Mater 160:402–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Comba P, Bianchi F, Fazzo L, Martina L, Menegozzo M, Minichilli F, Mitis F, Musmeci L, Pizzuti R, Santoro M, Trinca S, Martuzzi M (2006) Cancer mortality in an area of Campania (Italy) characterized by multiple toxic dumping sites. Ann NY Acad Sci 1076:449–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cuppett JD, Duncan SE, Dietrich AM (2006) Evaluation of copper speciation and water quality factors that affect aqueous copper tasting response. Chem Senses 31:689–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Curcó D, Malato S, Blanco J, Giménez J (1996) Photocatalysis and radiation absorption in a solar plant. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 44:199–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davezza M, Fabbri D, Bianco Prevot A, Pramauro E (2011) Removal of alkylphenols from polluted sites using surfactant-assisted soil washing and photocatalysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18:783–789Google Scholar
  8. D.Lgs.152/2006 (2006) Norme in materia ambientale. Gazzetta Ufficiale 88, S.O. 96Google Scholar
  9. De Lasa HI, Serrano B, Salaices M (2005) Photocatalytic reaction engineering. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  10. Dermont G, Bergeron M, Mercier G, Richer-Laflèche M (2008) Soil washing for metal removal: a review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications. J Hazard Mater 152:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Englehardt JD, Meeroff DE, Echegoyen L, Deng Y, Raymo FM, Shibata T (2007) Oxidation of aqueous EDTA and associated organics and coprecipitation of inorganics by ambient iron-mediated aeration. Environ Sci Technol 41:270–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EPA Method 9045C (2003) Soil and waste pH. In: Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. EPA Publication SW-846, US Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  13. Fabbri D, Prevot AB, Zelano V, Ginepro M, Pramauro E (2008) Removal and degradation of aromatic compounds from a highly polluted site by coupling soil washing with photocatalysis. Chemosphere 71:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hong APK, Li C, Banerji SK, Regmi T (1999) Extraction, recovery, and biostability of EDTA for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Soil Sediment Contam 8:81–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Järup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalogirou S (2003) The potential of solar industrial process heat applications. Appl Energy 76:337–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu X, Yu G, Han W (2007) Granular activated carbon adsorption and microwave regeneration for the treatment of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl in simulated soil-washing solution. J Hazard Mater 147:746–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Molinari R, Gallo S, Argurio P (2004) Metal ions removal from wastewater or washing water from contaminated soil by ultrafiltration-complexation. Water Res 38:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mulligan CN, Yong RN, Gibbs BF (2001) Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soils and groundwater: an evaluation. Eng Geol 60:193–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pociecha M, Lestan D (2009) EDTA leaching of Cu contaminated soil using electrochemical treatment of the washing solution. J Hazard Mater 165:533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rabek JF (1982) Experimental methods in photochemistry and photophysics 2. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Satyro S, Marotta R, Clarizia L, Di Somma I, Vitiello G, Dezotti M, Pinto G, Dantas RF, Andreozzi R (2014a) Removal of EDDS and copper from waters by TiO2 photocatalysis under simulated UV-solar conditions. Chem Eng J 251:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Satyro S, Race M, Marotta R, Dezotti M, Spasiano D, Mancini G, Fabbricino M (2014b) Simulated solar photocatalytic processes for the simultaneous removal of EDDS, Cu(II), Fe(III) and Zn(II) in synthetic and real contaminated soil washing solutions. J Environ Chem Eng 2:1969–1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Satyro S, Race M, Di Natale F, Erto A, Guida M, Marotta R (2016) Simultaneous removal of heavy metals from field-polluted soils and treatment of soil washing effluents through combined adsorption and artificial sunlight-driven photocatalytic processes. Chem Eng J 283:1484–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schulte EE (1995) Recommended soil organic matter tests. Recomm Soil Test Proced North East USA Northeast Reg Publ, 52–60Google Scholar
  26. Shanmuga Priya S, Premalatha M, Anantharaman N (2008) Solar photocatalytic treatment of phenolic wastewater potential, challenges and opportunities. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 3(6):36–41Google Scholar
  27. Triassi M, Alfano R, Illario M, Nardone A, Caporale O, Montuori P (2015) Environmental pollution from illegal waste disposal and health effects: a review on the “Triangle of Death”. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:1216–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vandevivere PC, Saveyn H, Verstraete W, Feijtel TCJ, Schowanek DR (2001) Biodegradation of metal-[S, S]-EDDS complexes. Environ Sci Technol 35:1765–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Voglar D, Lestan D (2012) Electrochemical treatment of spent solution after EDTA-based soil washing. Water Res 46:1999–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vohra MS, Davis AP (2000) TiO2-assisted photocatalysis of lead-EDTA. Water Res 34(3):952–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wu Y, Brigante M, Dong W, De Sainte-Claire P, Mailhot G (2014) Toward a better understanding of Fe(III)–EDDS photochemistry: theoretical stability calculation and experimental investigation of 4-tert-butylphenol degradation. J Phys Chem A 118:396–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Clarizia
    • 1
  • Marco Race
    • 2
  • Luca Onotri
    • 3
  • Ilaria Di Somma
    • 4
  • Nunzio Fiorentino
    • 3
  • Roberto Andreozzi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Raffaele Marotta
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione IndustrialeUniversità di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile ed AmbientaleUniversità di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  3. 3.Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca AmbienteUniversità di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  4. 4.Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche IRC-CNRIstituto di Ricerche sulla CombustioneNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations