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The Use of Al and Fe Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Micropollutants

  • Idil Arslan-AlatonEmail author
  • Tugba Olmez-Hanci
Chapter
  • 907 Downloads

Abstract

Increasing attention has been paid to the presence of micropollutants in water and wastewater due to their widespread application and incomplete removal during conventional treatment. Micropollutants may induce harmful impacts on human health as well as aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at concentrations in the μg/L-ng/L range due to their persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity. Until now, different strategies have been developed to alleviate the problem of micropollutants in the environment. Meanwhile, several types of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have also been developed and applied for the effective, destructive treatment of problematic pollutants. AOPs involve the intermediacy of reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl (HO·) and sulfate (SO 4 · ) radicals. More recently, alternative, innovative AOPs using nanoscale materials have been explored. Zero-valent metals including zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) have received increasing research interest due to their ease of use, high activity, availability and remarkable treatment performance. Their large surface area and the high number of active redox sites render nZVI and nZVAl good candidates for water and wastewater treatment. In this chapter, the application of ZVI- and ZVAl-mediated treatment systems for the degradation of organic and inorganic micropollutants has been presented and reviewed.

Keyword

Hydrogen peroxide and persulfate activation Hydroxyl radical Micropollutants Nanoparticles Sulfate radical Toxicity Zero-valent aluminum Zero-valent iron 

List of Abbreviations and Symbols

4-CP

4-chlorophenol

AC

Activated carbon

ACTM

Acetaminophen

ADMI

American Dye Manufacturer’s Institute

ANT

Anthracene

AO7

Acid orange 7

AOPs

Advanced oxidation processes

APEOs

Alkylphenol polyethoxylates

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry

BaP

Benzo[a]pyrene

BOD5

5 day biochemical oxygen demand

BPA

Bisphenol A

BTZ

Bentazon

CAP

Chloramphenicol

CMC

Carboxymethyl cellulose

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

DBP

Dibutyl phthalate

DCA

Dichloroacetate

DCP

2,4-dichlorophenol

DNT

2,4-dinitrotoluene

DO

Dissolved oxygen

DR23

Direct red 23

DW

Distilled water

EDC

Endocrine disrupting compounds

EDS

Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

EDTA

Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid

GC-ICP-MS

Gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

GC-MS

Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

HA

Humic acid

HO·

Hydroxyl radical

HO2·

Hydroperoxyl radical

HP

Hydrogen peroxide

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

ICM

X-ray contrast media

ICP

Inductively coupled plasma

IOPA

Iopamidol

LC-MS

Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy

MTBE

Methyl tert-butyl ether

NACs

Nitroaromatic compounds

NGs

Nanographenes

nZVAl

Nanoscale zero-valent aluminum

nZVI

Nanoscale zero-valent iron

O2·−

Superoxide radical

OG

Orange G (also: AO7)

OTCs

Organotin compounds

OxA

Oxalic acid

PAA

Porous anodic alumina

PAEs

Phthalic acid esters

PAHs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PCA

P-chloroaniline

PHE

Phenanthrene

PMS

Peroxymonosulfate

POM

Polyoxometalate

PPCPs

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products

PRBs

Permeable reactive barriers

PS

Persulfate

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol

PYR

Pyrene

RGO

Reduced graphite oxide

RGY

Remazol golden yellow

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RSM

Response surface methodology

SD

Sulfadiazine

SDS

Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SHE

Standard hydrogen electrode

SO4·−

Sulfate radical

Sono-FL

Sonochemical Fenton-like treatment

T

Temperature

TAME

Tert-amyl methyl ether

TBA

Tert-butyl alcohol

TBT

Tributyltin

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TMeT

Trimethyltin

TOC

Total organic carbon

TP

Tap water

TX-45

Triton™ X-45

US EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

US

Ultrasound

UV

Ultraviolet

VOCs

Volatile organic compounds

WHO

World Health Organization

WW

Wastewater

XPS

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

ZVAl

Zero-valent aluminum

ZVI

Zero-valent iron

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Civil EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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