The Use of Al and Fe Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Micropollutants

  • Idil Arslan-AlatonEmail author
  • Tugba Olmez-Hanci


Increasing attention has been paid to the presence of micropollutants in water and wastewater due to their widespread application and incomplete removal during conventional treatment. Micropollutants may induce harmful impacts on human health as well as aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at concentrations in the μg/L-ng/L range due to their persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity. Until now, different strategies have been developed to alleviate the problem of micropollutants in the environment. Meanwhile, several types of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have also been developed and applied for the effective, destructive treatment of problematic pollutants. AOPs involve the intermediacy of reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl (HO·) and sulfate (SO 4 · ) radicals. More recently, alternative, innovative AOPs using nanoscale materials have been explored. Zero-valent metals including zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) have received increasing research interest due to their ease of use, high activity, availability and remarkable treatment performance. Their large surface area and the high number of active redox sites render nZVI and nZVAl good candidates for water and wastewater treatment. In this chapter, the application of ZVI- and ZVAl-mediated treatment systems for the degradation of organic and inorganic micropollutants has been presented and reviewed.


Hydrogen peroxide and persulfate activation Hydroxyl radical Micropollutants Nanoparticles Sulfate radical Toxicity Zero-valent aluminum Zero-valent iron 

List of Abbreviations and Symbols




Activated carbon




American Dye Manufacturer’s Institute




Acid orange 7


Advanced oxidation processes


Alkylphenol polyethoxylates


Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry




5 day biochemical oxygen demand


Bisphenol A






Carboxymethyl cellulose


Chemical oxygen demand


Dibutyl phthalate








Dissolved oxygen


Direct red 23


Distilled water


Endocrine disrupting compounds


Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy


Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid


Gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry


Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy


Humic acid


Hydroxyl radical


Hydroperoxyl radical


Hydrogen peroxide


High performance liquid chromatography


X-ray contrast media


Inductively coupled plasma




Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy


Methyl tert-butyl ether


Nitroaromatic compounds




Nanoscale zero-valent aluminum


Nanoscale zero-valent iron


Superoxide radical


Orange G (also: AO7)


Organotin compounds


Oxalic acid


Porous anodic alumina


Phthalic acid esters


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons










Pharmaceuticals and personal care products


Permeable reactive barriers




Polyvinyl alcohol




Reduced graphite oxide


Remazol golden yellow


Reactive oxygen species


Response surface methodology




Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate


Scanning electron microscope


Standard hydrogen electrode


Sulfate radical


Sonochemical Fenton-like treatment




Tert-amyl methyl ether


Tert-butyl alcohol




Transmission electron microscopy




Total organic carbon


Tap water


Triton™ X-45


United States Environmental Protection Agency






Volatile organic compounds


World Health Organization




X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


X-ray diffraction


Zero-valent aluminum


Zero-valent iron


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Civil EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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