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Submerged Pottery Neolithic Settlements off the Coast of Israel: Subsistence, Material Culture and the Development of Separate Burial Grounds

  • Ehud GaliliEmail author
  • Liora Kolska Horwitz
  • Vered Eshed
  • Baruch Rosen
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 20)

Abstract

Eight inundated archaeological sites dating to the Pottery Neolithic period (Wadi Rabah culture), 8000–6500 cal. BP, have been exposed under water off the Carmel coast of Israel. The sites represent in situ settlements with architectural remains comprising domestic stone-built structures and water wells built of wood and stone. Rich assemblages of flint tools, ground stone artefacts and pottery were recovered in addition to organic remains (wooden bowls, baskets etc.). Faunal and botanical remains demonstrate that the subsistence economy consisted of animal husbandry, hunting and fishing complemented by cultivation of domestic crops and gathering of wild plants. Special features include the beginning of olive oil extraction, a major component of the Mediterranean subsistence economy, demonstrated at the site of Kfar Samir, while at the Neve-Yam site, the earliest separate burial ground in the region was found with a concentration of stone-built cist graves.

Keywords

Ceramic neolithic Southern levant Neolithic economy Water wells Inundated villages Olive oil 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank EU COST Action TD0902 SPLASHCOS, the National Geographic Research Foundation, CARE Archaeological Foundation, MAFCAF Foundation, and Sandy and Joseph Lepelstat, the Honor Frost foundation and the Dan David foundation their financial support. The Israel Antiquities Authority, the Israel Prehistoric Society, and Haifa University are acknowledged for their financial and institutional support of the underwater excavations. We also wish to express our appreciation to the divers and archaeologists who participated in the underwater excavations; to the many researchers who subsequently contributed to the study of the finds; S. Ben-Yehuda and B. Galili for the drawings; J. Galili, G. Arbel and I. Grinberg for the underwater photographs; M. Rasovsky for the treatment of organic material; I Carmi, D. Segal and E. Boaretto of the Weizmann Institute for radiocarbon dating; and I. Hershkovitz, M. Weinstein-Evron, N. Liphshitz, M. Kislev, A. Hartman, A. Gopher, D. Nadel, R. Barkai, A. Shifroni, D. Gersht, H. Michelin, K. Sharvit, I. Zohar, O. Lernau and H. K. Mienis for research on different aspects of the submerged sites and to O. Bar-Yosef, Y. Garfinkel and U. Avner for their comments on the discassion.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehud Galili
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Liora Kolska Horwitz
    • 3
  • Vered Eshed
    • 4
  • Baruch Rosen
    • 2
  1. 1.Zinman Institute of ArchaeologyUniversity of Haifa, HaifaAtlitIsrael
  2. 2.Israel Antiquities AuthorityAtlitIsrael
  3. 3.National Natural History Collections, Faculty of Life ScienceThe Hebrew UniversityJerusalemIsrael
  4. 4.Israel Antiquities AuthorityJerusalemIsrael

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