Aegean Pleistocene Landscapes Above and Below Sea-Level: Palaeogeographic Reconstruction and Hominin Dispersals

  • Dimitris SakellariouEmail author
  • Nena Galanidou
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 20)


The Aegean Region has remained marginal to research into human origins despite its key position in the multiple movements of animals between Europe and Asia. A possible explanation for this is that the Palaeolithic remains are invisible because they lie beneath the sea, whilst research in the field was hitherto developed on the mainland. In this chapter we make the submerged land, the coastal zones and the islands a unified research focus to examine the main, long-term and short-term geological and geotectonic processes which have controlled the development of Pleistocene landscapes in the Aegean Region above and below the fluctuating sea-level. We integrate evidence on the geology, tectonics, morphology and hydrogeology of the shallow coastal and shelf areas in order to reconstruct the palaeogeography. Given the variable tectonic evolution and geomorphological configuration of the coastal and shelf areas, we divide the Aegean into nine geographical units. Each unit has its own geotectonic and morphological history and offers a frame of reference to assess land-routes and the natural resources available to hominins at different times of the Pleistocene. We link this palaeogeographic reconstruction to the discussion of the early occupation of Europe. This allows the NE Mediterranean to become part of the discussion about hominin dispersals into Europe through a south-eastern route and gives a more complete view of the variations in Palaeolithic settlement.


Active Tectonics Submerged Landscapes Palaeogeography Palaeolithic Coastal Archaeology Island Archaeology 


  1. Ammerman AJ, Efstratiou N, Adam E (1999) First evidence for the Palaeolithic in Aegean Thrace In: Bailey GN, Panagopoulou E, Perlès C, Zachos K (eds) The palaeolithic archaeology of Greece and adjacent areas: proceedings of the ICOPAG Conference, Ioannina, (September 1994) British School at Athens Studies 3, London, pp 211–214Google Scholar
  2. Angelier J, Lyberis N, Le Pichon X, Barrier E, Huchon P (1982) The tectonic development of the Hellenic arc and the sea of Crete: a synthesis. Tectonophysics 86:159–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armijo R, Meyer B, King GCP, Rigo A, Papanastassiou D (1996) Quaternary evolution of the Corinth rift and its implications for the late cenozoic evolution of the Aegean. Geophys J Int 126:11–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armijo R, Meyer B, Hubert A, Barka A (1999) Westward propagation of the north Anatolian fault into the northern Aegean: timing and kinematics. Geology 27:267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armijo R, Flerit F, King G, Meyer B (2004) Linear elastic fracture mechanics explains the past and present evolution of the Aegean. Earth Planet Sci Lett 217(1–2):85–95. doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00590-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azzaroli A (1983) Quaternary mammals and the “end-Villafranchian” dispersal event – a turning point in the history of Eurasia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 44:117–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey G (2011) Continental shelf archaeology: where next? In: Benjamin J, Bonsall C, Pickard C, Fischer A (eds) Submerged prehistory. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp 311–331Google Scholar
  8. Bailey GN, Flemming NC (2008) Archaeology of the continental shelf: marine resources, submerged landscapes and underwater archaeology. Quat Sci Rev 2:2153–2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bailey G, Sakellariou D and members of the SPLASHCOS network (2012) SPLASHCOS: submerged prehistoric archaeology and landscapes of the continental shelf. Antiquity 86(334). http://antiquityacuk/projgall/sakellariou334/
  10. Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A (2001) From Africa to Eurasia – early dispersals. Quat Int 75:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bassiakos IE (1993) Dating of fossils from caves and speleothems: evidence from electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, the study of underground karst morphology and the relevant radiometric and geological conditions in speleoenvironments of Dyros, Mani. University of Athens, Unpublished PhD thesis (in Greek)Google Scholar
  12. Benjamin J, Bonsall C, Pickard C, Fischer A (eds) (2011) Submerged prehistory. Oxbow Books, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Bevan A, Conolly J (2013) Mediterranean islands, fragile communities and persistent landscapes Antikythera in long-term perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Broodbank C (1999) Kythera survey: preliminary report on the 1998 season. Ann Br Sch Athens 94:191–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brossolo L, Mascle J, Loubtrieu B (2012) Morpho-bathymetry of the Mediterranean Sea, Map 1/4000000, 1st edn. Τhe Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) and UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  16. Carter T, Contreras DA, Doyle S, Mihailovic DD, Moutsiou T, Skarpelis N (2014) The Stélida Naxos archaeological project: new data on the Mesolithic and Middle Palaeolithic Cyclades. Antiquity 88(341) http://journalantiquityacuk/projgall/carter341
  17. Chavaillon J, Chavaillon N, Hours F (1967) Industries paléolithiques de l’ elide I – region d’ Amalias. Bull Corresp Hell 91:151–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chelidonio G (2001) Manufatti liticisu ciottolo da Milos (isole cicladi)i (nota preliminare). Pegaso Riv Ann Cult Mediterr 1:117–144Google Scholar
  19. Darlas A (1985) Palaeolithic finds from Kalamaki, Achaia. Archaeol Deltio (Studies) 40A:194–206Google Scholar
  20. Darlas A (1989) The Aurignacian lithic industry from Elaeochori, Achaia. Archaeol Ephemer 128:137–159. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  21. Darlas A (2011) Palaeolithic finds from Rachona, Pella. Archaeologiko ergo in Macedonia and Thrace 2. Archaeol Ergo Maced Thrace 21:109–114. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  22. Darlas A (2014) In search of the identity of Petralona cave and its importance for the Greek and European prehistory. In: Stefani E, Merousis N, Dimoula A (eds) A century of research in prehistoric Macedonia, 1912–2012. International Conference Proceedings, Thessaloniki, pp 195–2044, (in Greek)Google Scholar
  23. Darlas A, de Lumley H (1998) Fouilles franco-helléniques de la grotte de Kalamakia (Aréopolis; Péloponnèse). Bull Corresp Hell 122:655–661Google Scholar
  24. Darlas A, Papaconstantinou E (2004) A new Middle Palaeolithic open-air site at Sardinia Amfilochia. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the History and Archaeology of Aetoloakarnania, Agrinio 29–31 March 2002, Agrinio, pp 21–32 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  25. Darlas A, Psathi E (2008) Le Paléolithique supérieur dans la péninsule du Mani (Péloponnèse, Grèce). In: Darlas A, Mihailović D (eds) The Palaeolithic of the Balkans, British archaeological reports international series 1819. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 51–59Google Scholar
  26. Darlas A, Karkanas P, Palli O, Papadea A (2007) Palaeolithic research in the Korission Lagoon area. In: Arvanitou-Metallinou G (ed) Prehistoric Corfu and its adjacent areas. Problems – perspectives. Proceedings of the conference dedicated to Augustus Sordinas, Corfu 17 December 2004, pp 77–84 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  27. Desruelles S, Fouache E, Ciner A, Dalongeville R, Pavlopoulos K, Kosun E, Coquinot Y, Potdevin J-L (2009) Beachrocks and sea level changes since middle Holocene: comparison between the insular group of Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia (Cyclades, Greece) and the southern coast of Turkey. Glob Planet Chang 66:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dewey JF, Sengoer CAM (1979) Aegean and surrounding regions: complex multiplate and continuum tectonics in a convergent zone. Geol Soc Am Bull 90:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Douka K, Perlès C, Valladas H, Vanhaeren M, Hedges REM (2010) Franchthi cave revisited: the age of the Aurignacian in South-Eastern Europe. Antiquity 85:1131–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dousougli A (1999) Palaeolithic Leukas. In: Bailey GN, Adam E, Panagopoulou E, Perlès C, Zachos K (eds) The Palaeolithic archaeology of Greece and adjacent areas, proceedings of the ICOPAG conference, Ioannina, September 1994. British School at Athens Studies, 3, London, pp 288–292Google Scholar
  31. Efstratiou N (1985) Agios Petros: a Neolithic site in the northern Sporades. Aegean relationships during the Neolithic of the 5th millennium BC, British archaeological reports international series 241. BAR, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  32. Efstratiou N (2001) The Neolithic settlement of Agios Petros in Kyra-Panagia, Halonnesos and the island habitation patterns in the Aegean – a reconsideration. In: Sampson A (ed) Archaeology in the Northern Sporades Athens, pp 231–250 (In Greek)Google Scholar
  33. Efstratiou N (2014) The final palaeolithic hunting camp of Ouriakos on the Island of Lemnos. Eurasian Prehist 11(1–2):75–96Google Scholar
  34. Efstratiou N, Kyriakou D (2011) Following the traces of the last hunter-gatherers of East Mediterranean. Anaskamma 5:53–74. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  35. Efstratiou N, Biagi P, Karkanas P, Starnini E (2013) A Late Palaeolithic site at Ouriakos (Limnos, Greece) in the north-eastern Aegean. Antiquity 87(335). http://antiquityacuk/projgall/efstratiou335/
  36. Elefanti P, Panagopoulou E, Karkanas P (2008) The transition from the middle to the upper Palaeolithic in the southern Balkans: the evidence from the Lakonis I cave, Greece. Eurasian Prehistory 5:85–95Google Scholar
  37. Evelpidou N, Pirazzoli PA, Saliege J-F, Vassilopoulos A (2011a) Submerged notches and doline sediments as evidence for Holocene subsidence. Cont Shelf Res 31:1273–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Evelpidou N, Pirazzoli PA, Vassilopoulos A, Tomasin A (2011b) Holocene submerged shorelines on Theologos area (Greece). Z Geomorphol 55(1):31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Evelpidou N, Vassilopoulos A, Pirazzoli PA (2012) Submerged notches on the coast of Skyros Island (Greece) as evidence for Holocene subsidence. Geomorphology 141–142:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Farrand WR (2000) Depositional history of Franchthi cave: sediments, stratigraphy and chronology. In: Jacobsen TW (ed) Excavations at Franchthi cave, 12. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and IndianapolisGoogle Scholar
  41. Felsch RCS (1973) Die Höhle von Kephalari eine jungpaläolithicsche Siedlung in der Argolis. Archaeol Analecta Athinon 6:13–27Google Scholar
  42. Ferentinos G, Gkioni M, Geraga M, Papatheodorou G (2012) Early seafaring activity in the southern Ionian Islands, Mediterranean Sea. J Archaeol Sci 39:2167–2176. doi: 10.1016/jjas201201032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Flemming NC (1968) Holocene earth movements and eustatic sea level change in the Peloponnese. Nature 217(5133):1031–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Flemming NC (1978) Holocene eustatic changes and coastal tectonics in the Northeast Mediterranean: implications for models of crustal consumption. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 289(1362):405–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Flemming NC, Kazianis D (1987) Preliminary report on the Otranto Straits project. Report submitted to the Department of Antiquities, Underwater Section, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  46. Flemming NC, Cagatay MN, Chiocci FL, Galandiou N, Lericolais G, Joens H, Missiaen T, Moore F, Rosentau A, Sakellariou D, Skar B, Stevenson A, Weerts H (2014) Land beneath the waves: submerged landscapes and sea level change. A joint geoscience-humanities strategy for European continental shelf prehistoric research. In: Chu NC, McDonough N (eds) Position paper 21 of the European Marine Board European Marine Board, OstendGoogle Scholar
  47. Foss P (2002) The lithics. In: Randsborg K (ed) Kephallénia: archaeology and history: the ancient Greek cities. Acta Archaeologica 73 (1–2): 77–147Google Scholar
  48. Fotiadis M (2016) Leaf-points from Petrota (Greek Thrace) and the Palaeolithic chronology of the Vrachos chert quarry. Annu Br Sch Athens III(I):1–11Google Scholar
  49. Galanidou N (2013) Looking for the earliest occupants of the Aegean – Palaeolithic excavations at Rodafnidia, Lisvori, Lesbos. In: Alvanou M (ed) Island identities. The contribution of the Secretariat General for the Aegean and Island Policy to the research and promotion of the culture of the Aegean Archipelago, Mytilene, pp 15–17Google Scholar
  50. Galanidou N (2014a) Archaeological survey on the Inner Ionian Sea archipelago. In: Smith C (ed) Encyclopedia of global archaeology. Field archaeology. Springer, New York, pp 3882–3888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Galanidou N (2014b) Advances in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic archaeology of Greece for the new millennium. Pharos 20(1):1–40Google Scholar
  52. Galanidou N (2015) Seascape survey on the Inner Ionian Sea archipelago. In: Carver M, Gaydarska B, Monton-Subias S (eds) Field archaeology from around the world. Ideas and approaches. Springer, New York, pp 101–106Google Scholar
  53. Galanidou N (2016) Before ancient Nericos what? Palaeolithic finds from Karyotes Lefkas. In: Papadatou-Yannopoulou C (ed) Nericos, Lefkas, Castro. The longest-living capital of Lefkas, Proceedings of a conference held at Lefkas in August 2010. Cultural Centre of the Lefkas Municipality, Lefkas. (In Greek), pp 83–111Google Scholar
  54. Galanidou N (in press) Parting the waters: Palaeolithic archaeology and the Quaternary Ionian Sea. In: Driessen J, Garezou M-X, Iossif PP, Mendoni L, Tsingarida A (eds), Archaeology of the Sea. Proceedings of the Conference organized by the Greek Ministry of Culture and the Belgian School at Athens, Brussels, 21–22 March 2014, AthensGoogle Scholar
  55. Galanidou N, Cole J, Iliopoulos G, McNabb J (2013) East meets West: the Middle Pleistocene site of Rodafnidia on Lesbos, Greece. Antiquity 87(336). http://antiquityacuk/projgall/galanidou336/
  56. Galanidou N, Papoulia C, Ligkovanlis S (2016a) The middle Palaeolithic bifacial tools from Megalo Karvounari. In: Forsén Β, Galanidou N, Tikkala E (eds) Thesprotia expedition III. Landscapes of nomadism and sedentism. Foundation of the Finish Institute at Athens, Helsinki, pp 29–58Google Scholar
  57. Galanidou N, Athanassas C, Cole J, Iliopoulos G, Katerinopoulos A, Magganas A, McNabb J (2016b) The Acheulian site at Rodafnidia, Lisvori, on Lesbos, Greece: 2010–2012. In: Harvati K, Roksandic M (eds) Paleoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia. Human evolution and its context. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 119–138Google Scholar
  58. Galanidou Ν, Iliopoulos G, Papoulia C (2016c) The Palaeolithic settlement of Lefkas. Archaeological evidence in a palaeogeographic context. J Greek Archaeol 1:1–32Google Scholar
  59. Giannopoulos B (2000) Contribution to the study of modern and old environments of the most important Greek caves. University of Athens, Unpublished PhD thesis (In Greek)Google Scholar
  60. Goren-Inbar N, Feibel CS, Versoub KL, Melamed Y, Kislev ME, Tchernov E, Saragusti I (2000) Pleistocene milestones on the out-of-Africa corridor at Gesher Ya’aqov. Israel Sci 289(5481):944–947Google Scholar
  61. Grün R (1996) A re-analysis of electron spin resonance dating results associated with the Petralona hominid. J Hum Evol 30:227–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harding AF (1970) Pavlopetri. A Mycenaean town. Underw Archaeol 23:242–250Google Scholar
  63. Harding AF, Cadogan G, Howell R (1969) Pavlopetri, an underwater bronze age town in Laconia. Ann Br Sch Athens 64:112–142Google Scholar
  64. Harvati K, Panagopoulou E, Karkanas P (2003) First Neanderthal remains from Greece: the evidence from Lakonis. J Hum Evol 45:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Harvati K, Stringer C, Karkanas P (2010) Multivariate analysis and classification of the apidima 2 cranium from Mani, southern Greece. J Hum Evol 6(2):246–250Google Scholar
  66. Harvati K, Darlas A, Bailey SE, Rein TR, El Zaatari S, Fiorenza L, Kullmer O, Psathi E (2013) New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, southern Greece: the Kalamakia middle Paleolithic cave site. J Hum Evol 64(6):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Henderson JC, Gallou C, Flemming NC, Spondylis E (2011) The Pavlopetri underwater archaeology project: investigating an ancient submerged town. In: Benjamin J, Bonsall C, Pickard C, Fischer A (eds) Submerged prehistory. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp 207–218Google Scholar
  68. Hennig GJ, Herr W, Weber E, Xirotiris NI (1982) Petralona cave dating controversy. Nature 299:281–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Higgs E (1964) A hand-axe from Greece. Antiquity 38:54–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Iler EB, Aksu AE, Yaltýrak C, Hiscott RN (2008) Seismic stratigraphy and quaternary sedimentary history of the northeast Aegean Sea. Mar Geol 254:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. International Bathymetric Map of the Mediterranean (IBCM) 1st Edition (1981) Intergovernmental Oceanographic CommissionGoogle Scholar
  72. Jolivet L (2001) A comparison of geodetic and finite strain pattern in the Aegean, geodynamic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett 187:95–104. doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00277-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jongsma D (1977) Pliny and Strabo trenches, south of the Hellenic arc. Geol Soc Am Bull 88:797–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jöris O (2014) Early Palaeolithic Europe. In: Renfrew C, Bahn P (eds) The Cambridge world prehistory, vol III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1703–1746Google Scholar
  75. Kappelman J, Alçiçek MC, Kazanci N, Schultz M, Özkul M, Sen S (2008) First Homo Erectus from Turkey and implications for migrations into temperate Eurasia. Am J Phys Anthropol 135(1):110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kapsimalis V, Pavlakis P, Poulos SE, Alexandri S, Tziavos C, Sioulas A, Filippas D, Lykousis V (2005) Internal structure and evolution of the late quaternary sequence in a shallow embayment: the Amvrakikos gulf, NW Greece. Mar Geol 222–223:399–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kapsimalis V, Pavlopoulos K, Panagiotopoulos I, Drakopoulou P, Vandarakis D, Sakellariou D, Anagnostou C (2009) Geoarchaeological challenges in the Cyclades continental shelf (Aegean Sea). Z Geomorphol NF 53(1):169–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Khatib S, Rochette P, Alçiçek MC, Lebatard A-E, Demory F, Saos T (2014) Études stratigraphique, sédimentologique et paléomagnetique des travertins de Kocabaş, Bassin de Denizli, Anatolie, Turquie, contenant des restes fossiles quaternaires. Anthropologie 118:16–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kontogianni V, Tsoulos N, Stiros S (2002) Coastal uplift, earthquakes and active faulting of Rhodes Island (Aegean arc): modelling based on geodetic inversion. Mar Geol 186:299–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kopaka K, Matzanas C (2009) Palaeolithic industries from the island of Gavdos, near neighbour to Crete in Greece. Antiquity 83 (321). http://antiquityacuk/projgall/kopaka321/
  81. Kopaka K, Matzanas C (2011) Early marine travels in the Aegean and Crete. Reflections departing from the knapped-stone industries from Gavdos island. In: Andreadaki-Vlazaki M (ed) Proceedings of the I international cretological conference, Chania 1–8 October 2006, A1, pp 43–82 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  82. Koufos G (2001) The Villafranchian mammalian faunas and biochronology of Greece. Boll Soc Paleontol Ital 40(2):217–223Google Scholar
  83. Koukouli-Chrysanthaki H (2012) Prehistoric Thassos: assessment and perspectives of the archaeological research. In: Papadopoulos S, Malamidou D (eds) Ten years of excavation research of Limenaria prehistoric settlement Thassos (Conference Proceedings Thassos 11 July 2003) Thessaloniki, pp 9–36 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  84. Koukouli-Chrysanthaki H, Weissgeber G (1997) Prehistoric ochre quarries in Thassos. Archaeol Ergo Maced Thrace 7:541–558. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  85. Kourtessi-Philippakis G, Georgiou H, Dimadi L, Trantalidou K (1993) The exploration of the Palaeolithic settlement in East Macedonia: preliminary report 1989–1990. Archaeol Ergo Maced Thrace:553–559. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  86. Kreemer C, Chamot-Rooke N (2004) Contemporary kinematics of the southern Aegean and the Mediterranean ridge. Geophys J Int 15:1377–1392. doi: 10.1111/j1365-246X200402270x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Latham AG, Schwarcz H (1992) The Petralona hominid site: uranium-series re-analysis of “layer 10” calcite and associated palaeomagnetic analyses. Archaeometry 34:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Le Pichon X (1982) Land-locked oceanic basins and continental collision: the eastern Mediterranean as a case example. In: Hsü K (ed) Mountain building processes. Academic, London, pp 201–211Google Scholar
  89. Le Pichon X, Angelier J (1979) The Hellenic arc and trench system: a key to the neotectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean area. Tectonophysics 60:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Le Pichon X, Angelier J, Sibuet J-C (1982) Plate boundaries and extensional tectonics. Tectonophysics 81:239–256. doi: 10.1016/0040-1951(82)90131-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Le Pichon X, Chamon-Rooke N, Lallemant S, Noomen R, Veis G (1995) Geodetic determination of the kinematics of Central Greece with respect to Europe: implications for eastern Mediterranean tectonics. J Geophys Res 100:12675–12690. doi: 10.1029/95JB00317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lebatard AE, Alçiçek MC, Rochette P, Khatib S, Vialet A, Boulbes N et al (2014) Dating the Homo Erectus bearing travertine from Kocabaş (Denizli, Turkey) at least 1.1 Ma. Earth Planet Sci Lett 390:8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lebreton V, Psathi E, Darlas A (2008) Environnement vegetal des Neanderthaleniens de la grotte de Kalamakia (Areopolis, Grèce). In: Darlas A, Mihailovic D (eds) The Palaeolithic of the Balkans, British archaeological reports international series 1819. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 61–68Google Scholar
  94. Leeder MR, Portman C, Andrews JE, Collier RELI, Finch E, Gawthorpe RL, McNeil LC, Perez-Arlucea M, Rowe P (2005) Normal faulting and crustal deformation, Alkyonides gulf and Perachora peninsula, eastern gulf of Corinth rift, Greece. J Geol Soc 162(3):549–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ligkovanlis S (2011) Megalo Karvounari revisited. In: Forsén N, Tikkala E (eds) Thesprotia expedition II: environment and settlement patterns. Foundation of the Finish Institute at Athens, Helsinki, pp 159–180Google Scholar
  96. Lykousis V (2009) Sea-level changes and shelf break prograding sequences during the last 400 ka in the Aegean margins: subsidence rates and palaeogeographic implications. Cont Shelf Res 29:2037–2044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lykousis V, Anagnostou C (1994) Sedimentological and palaeogeographic evolution of the Saronic gulf during the late quaternary. Bull Geol Soc Greece 28(1):501–510. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  98. Lykousis V, Sakellariou D, Moretti I, Kaberi H (2007) Late quaternary basin evolution of the Gulf of Corinth: sequence stratigraphy, sedimentation, fault-slip and subsidence rates. Tectonophysics 440:29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mascle J, Martin L (1990) Shallow structure and recent evolution of the Aegean Sea: a synthesis based on continuous reflection profiles. Mar Geol 94:271–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mascle J, Mascle G (2012) Geological and morpho-tectonic map of the Mediterranean domain. Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) and UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  101. Mascle J, Jongsma D, Campredon R, Dercourt J, Glacon G, Lecleach A, Lyberis N, Malod JA, Mitropoulos D (1982) The Hellenic margin from eastern Crete to Rhodes: preliminary results. Tectonophysics 86:133–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McKenzie DP (1970) Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Nature 226:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McKenzie DP (1978) Active tectonics of the alpine-Himalayan belt: the Aegean Sea and surrounding regions. Geophys J Astron Soc 55:217–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Meulenkamp JE, Wortel MJR, Van Wamel WA, Spakman W, Hoogerduyn Strating E (1988) On the Hellenic subduction zone and the geodynamical evolution of Crete since the late middle Miocene. Tectonophysics 146:203–215. doi: 10.1016/0040-1951(88)90091-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Moncel M-H (2010) Oldest human expansions in Eurasia: favouring and limiting factors. Quat Int 223–224:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mortensen P (2008) Lower to Middle Palaeolithic artefacts from Loutró on the south coast of Crete. Antiquity 83(321). http://wwwantiquityacuk/projgall/mortensen
  107. Moundrea-Agrafioti A (1992) Agios Petros Kyra-Panagias. Elements of the knapped stone industry. In: Ancient Thessaly. Proceedings of the International Conference in Memory of Dimitris Theocharis. Archaeologico Deltio Publications 48:191–201 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  108. Palombo MR, AFM V, Kostopoulos DS, Alberd MT, Spassov N, Vislobokova I (2006) Similarity relationships between the Pliocene to middle Pleistocene large mammal faunas of southern Europe from Spain to the Balkans and the north Pontic region. In: Kahlke R-D, Maul LC, Mazza PPA (eds) Late Neogene and quaternary biodiversity and evolution: regional developments and interregional correlations, Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 256, vol I. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, pp 329–347Google Scholar
  109. Panagopoulou E, Kotzambopoulou E, Karkanas P (2001) Geoarchaeological research on Alonnisos: new data on the Aegean Palaeolithic and Mesolithic. Ιn: Sampson A (ed) Archaeological research in northern Sporades, Community of Alonnisos, Alonnisos, pp 121–151. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  110. Panagopoulou E, Karkanas P, Tsartsidou G, Kotzambopoulou E, Harvati K, Ntinou M (2004) Late Pleistocene archaeological and fossil human evidence from Lakonis cave, southern Greece. J Field Archaeol 29:323–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Papadea A, Georgiadou G (2007) Prehistoric Othonoi: recent investigations. In: Arvanitou-Metallinou GG (ed) Prehistoric Corfu and its adjacent areas. Problems – perspectives. Proceedings of the conference dedicated to Augustus Sordinas, Corfu 17 December 2004, Corfu, pp 135–140 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  112. Papanikolaou D, Chronis G, Metaxas C (1994) Neotectonic structure of the Argolikos gulf. Bull Geol Soc Greece 30(2):305–316Google Scholar
  113. Papanikolaou D, Alexandri M, Nomikou P, Ballas D (2002) Morphotectonic structure of the western part of the north Aegean Basin based on swath bathymetry. Mar Geol 190:465–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Papoulia C (2011) Mikro Karvounari in context: the new lithic collection and its implications for middle Palaeolithic hunting activities. In: Forsén N, Tikkala E (eds) Thesprotia expedition II: environment and settlement patterns. Foundation of the Finish Institute at Athens, Helsinki, pp 123–158Google Scholar
  115. Perissoratis C, Conispoliatis N (2003) The impacts of sea-level changes during latest Pleistocene and Holocene times on the morphology of the Ionian and Aegean seas (SE alpine Europe). Mar Geol 196:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Perissoratis C, Mitropoulos D (1989) Late quaternary evolution of the northern Aegean shelf. Quat Res 32:36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Perissoratis C, Piper DJW, Lykousis V (1993) Late quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Corinth: the effects of marine-lake fluctuations driven by eustatic sea level changes, Special publication dedicated to prof a Panagos. National Technical University of Athens, Athens, pp 693–744Google Scholar
  118. Perlès C (1987) Les industries lithiques taillées de Franchthi (Argolide, Grèce) tome I: présentation générale et industries paléolithiques. In: Jacobsen TW (ed) Excavations at Franchthi cave, 3. Indiana University Press, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  119. Perlès C (1999) Long-term perspectives on the occupation of the Franchthi Cave: continuity and discontinuity. In: Bailey GN, Adam E, Panagopoulou E, Perlès C, Zachos K (eds) The Palaeolithic archaeology of Greece and adjacent areas, Proceedings of the ICOPAG Conference, Ioannina September 1994. British School at Athens Studies, 3, London, pp 311–318Google Scholar
  120. Piper DJW, Perissoratis C (1991) Late quaternary sedimentation on the north Aegean continental margin, Greece. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 75:6–61Google Scholar
  121. Pirazzoli PA (1988) Sea-level changes and crustal movements in the Hellenic arc (Greece). The contribution of archaeological and historical data. In: Raban A (ed) Archaeology of coastal changes, British archaeological reports international series 404. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 157–184Google Scholar
  122. Pirazzoli PA, Comment J, Thommer Y, Laborel J, Montaggioni LF (1982) Crustal block movements from Holocene shorelines: Crete and Antikythira (Greece). Tectonophysics 86:27–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pirazzoli PA, Montaggioni LF, Saliege JF, Segonzac G, Thommeret Y, Vergnaud-Grazzini C (1989) Crustal block movements from Holocene shorelines: Rhodes Island (Greece). Tectonophysics 170:89–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pope KO, Runnels CN, Ku TL (1984) Dating middle Palaeolithic red beds in southern Greece. Nature 312:264–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Reisch L (1976) Beobachtungen an Vogelknochen aus dem Spätpleistozän der Höhle von Kephalari (Argolis Griechenland). Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 6:261–265Google Scholar
  126. Richter DK, Anagnostou C, Lykousis V (1993) Aragonitishe whiting-Ablagerungen in Plio−/Pleistozaenen Mergelsequenzen bei Korinth (Griechenland). Zentralbl Geol Paläontol Teil 1(6):675–688Google Scholar
  127. Rodríguez J, Martín-González JA, Goikoetxea I, Rodríguez-Gómez G, Mateos A (2013) Mammalian paleobiogeography and the distribution of homo in early Pleistocene Europe. Quat Int 295:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Roger T, Darlas A (2008a) Upper Pleistocene bird remains from Kalamakia Cave (Greece). In: Darlas A, Mihailovic D (eds) The Palaeolithic of the Balkans. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1819, Oxford, pp 69–76Google Scholar
  129. Roger T, Darlas A (2008b) Microvertébrés, paléo-environnement et paléoclimat de la grotte de Kalamakia (Péloponnèse, Grèce) In: Darlas A, Mihailovic D (eds) The Palaeolithic of the Balkans. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1819, Oxford, pp 77–84Google Scholar
  130. Rook L, Martínez-Navarro B (2010) Villafranchian: the long story of a Plio-Pleistocene European large mammal biochronologic unit. Quat Int 219:134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rousakis G, Karageorgis AP, Georgiou P (2014) Geological structure and seabed morphology of the Stoupa submarine groundwater discharge system, Messinia, Greece. Environ Earth Sci 71:5059–5069. doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2910-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Runnels C, Van Andel TH (1993) A handaxe from Kokkinopilos, Epirus, and its implications for the Paleolithic of Greece. J Field Archaeol 20:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Runnels C, Van Andel TH (2003) The early stone age of the nomos of Preveza: landscape and settlement. In: Wiseman J, Zachos K (eds) Landscape archaeology in southern Epirus, Greece I. Hesperia supplement 32. The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton, pp 47–134Google Scholar
  134. Runnels C, Karimali E, Cullen B (2003) Early Upper Palaeolithic Spilaion: an artifact-rich surface site In: Wiseman J, Zachos K (eds) Landscape archaeology in Southern Epirus, Greece I. Hesperia Supplement 32, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, pp 135–156Google Scholar
  135. Sakellariou D, Galanidou N (2016) Pleistocene submerged landscapes and Palaeolithic archaeology in the tectonically active Aegean region. In: Harff J, Bailey G, Lüth, F (eds) Geology and archaeology: submerged landscapes of the continental shelf. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 411:145–178. doi: 10.1144/SP411.9
  136. Sakellariou D, Lykousis V, Alexandri S, Kaberi H, Rousakis G, Nomikou P, Georgiou P, Ballas D (2007a) Faulting, seismic-stratigraphic architecture and late quaternary evolution of the Gulf of Alkyonides basin – east gulf of Corinth, Central Greece. Basin Res 19(2):273–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sakellariou D, Rousakis G, Kaberi H, Kapsimalis V, Georgiou P, Kanellopoulos T, Lykousis V (2007b) Tectono-sedimentary structure and late quaternary evolution of the north Evia gulf basin, Central Greece: preliminary results. Bull Geol Soc Greece 37(1):451–462Google Scholar
  138. Sakellariou D, Beck J, Rousakis G, Georgiou P, Panagiotopoulos I, Morfis I, Tsampouraki-Kraounaki K, Zavitsanou A (2015) Submerged prehistoric landscapes off Franchthi Cave, East Argolic Gulf: preliminary results. Proceedings of the 11th Panhellenic Symposium on Oceanography and Fisheries, Mytilene, Greece, pp 993–996Google Scholar
  139. Sharon G (2007) Acheulean large flake industries: technology and significance, British archaeological reports international series 1701. Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  140. Shaw B, Ambraseys NN, England PC, Floyd MA, Gorman GJ, Higham TFG, Jackson JA, Nocquet J-M, Pain CC, Piggott MD (2008) Eastern Mediterranean tectonics and tsunami hazard inferred from the AD 365 earthquake. Nat Geosci 1:268–276. doi: 10.1038/ngeo151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Slimak L, Kuhn SL, Roche H, Mouralis D, Buitenhuis H, Balkan-Atlim N, Binder D, Kuzucuoðlu C, Guillou H (2008) Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in central Anatolia. J Hum Evol 54(1):99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sordinas A (1969) Investigations of the prehistory of Corfu during 1964–1966. Balk Stud 10:393–424Google Scholar
  143. Sordinas A (1983) Quaternary shorelines in the region of Corfu and adjacent islets, western Greece. In: Masters PM, Flemming NC (eds) Quaternary coastlines and marine archaeology: towards the prehistory of land bridges and continental shelves. Academic, London, pp 335–344Google Scholar
  144. Sorrensen L (2004) The cave of Aghios Nikolaos near Kato Vasiliki in Aetolia: flint technological observations. In: Dietz S, Kolonas L, Houby-Nielsen S, Moschos I, Eiring J Greek-Danish excavations at Aetolian Chalkis 1999–2001. Third preliminary report. Proceedings of the Danish Institute AT aTHENS, Volume IV, Athens, pp 237–258Google Scholar
  145. Staikou P (in press) Ακολουθώντας τους Νεάντερταλ στις όχθες του Εύηνου ποταμού. In: Archaeological work in NW Greece and the Ionian Islands, Ioannina 10–13 December 2014, Conference Proceedings IoanninaGoogle Scholar
  146. Stampfuss R (1942) Die ersten altsteinzeitlichen Höhlenfunde in Girechenland. Mannus 34:132–147Google Scholar
  147. Stiner MC, Kozlowski JK, Kuhn SL, Karkanas P, Koumouzelis M (2010) Klissoura Cve 1 and the upper Palaeolithic of southern Greece in cultural and ecological context. Eurasian Prehistory 7(2):309–321Google Scholar
  148. Stiros S, Blackman D, Pirazzoli P (2010) Late Holocene seismic coastal uplift and subsidence in Rhodes Island, SE Aegean Arc, Greece: evidence from ancient shipsheds. IGCP 521 – INQUA 501 Sixth Plenary Meeting and Field Trip, 27 Sept–5 Oct 2010, Rhodes, Greece, Abstracts, 211Google Scholar
  149. Strasser TF, Panagopoulou E, Runnels CN, Murray PM, Thompson N, Karkanas P, McCoy FW, Wegmann KW (2010) Stone age seafaring in the Mediterranean: evidence from the Plakias region for lower Palaeolithic and Mesolithic habitation of Crete. Hesperia 79:145–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Strasser TF, Runnels C, Wegmann K, Panagopoulou E, McCoy F, DiGregorio C, Karkanas P, Thompson N (2011) Dating Palaeolithic sites in southwestern Crete, Greece. J Quat Sci 26:553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Symeonides NK, Theodorou GE, Giannopoulos VI (2001) New data on Elephas chaniensis (Vamos cave, Chania, Crete). In: Proceedings of the 1st International Congress ‘The World of Elephants’. Rome, pp 510–513Google Scholar
  152. Taymaz T, Jackson J, McKenzie D (1991) Active tectonics of the north and central Aegean Sea. Geophys J Int 106:433–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ten Veen JH, Kleinspehn KL (2002) Geodynamics along an increasingly curved convergent plate margin: late Miocene-Pleistocene Rhodes, Greece. Tectonics 21:3. doi: 10.1029/2001TC001287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Theocharis D (1970) Palaeolithic finds on Alonnisos. Archaeologikon Deltion 25:276–279. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  155. Theocharis D (1971) Alonnisos. Archaeol Deltion 26:296–300. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  156. Theodoulou T (2008) The harbour network of ancient Lesbos. First step of an underwater approach. In: Tzalas H (ed) Tropis X, Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity. Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical Tradition, Hydra. Athens, in pressGoogle Scholar
  157. Tourloukis V (2009) New bifaces from the Palaeolithic site of Kokkinopilos, Greece and their stratigraphic significance. Antiquity 83(320). http://antiquityacuk/projgall/tourloukis
  158. Tourloukis V, Karkanas P (2012) The middle Pleistocene archaeological record of Greece and the role of the Aegean in hominin dispersals: new data and interpretations. Quat Sci Rev 43(12):1–15. doi: 10.1016/jquascirev201204004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tourloukis V, Karkanas P, Wallinga J (2015) Revisiting Kokkinopilos: middle Pleistocene radiometric dates for stratified archaeological remains in Greece. J Archaeol Sci 57:355–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Trantalidou K (1989) The Agitis’ sources (Maara) site in the Drama Basin. Data and perspectives. Archael Analekta Athinon 22:61–70. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  161. Trantalidou E, Darlas A (1995) Research in the Drama prefecture caves, 1992. Archaeol Ergo Maced Thrace 6:587–603. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  162. Van Andel T, Lianos N (1984) High resolution seismic reflection profiles for the reconstruction of post-glacial transgressive shorelines. An example from Greece. Quat Res 22:31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Van Andel TH, Zangger E, Perissoratis C (1990) Quaternary transgressive/regressive cycles in the Gulf of Argos, Greece. Quat Res 34:317–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Van Hinsbergen DJJ, Meulenkamp JE (2006) Neogene supradetachment basin development on Crete (Greece) during exhumation of the south Aegean core complex. Basin Res 18:103–124. doi: 10.1111/j1365-2117200500282x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Van Winjgaarden GJM, Sotiriou A, Pierers N, Tourloukis V (2006) The Zakynthos archaeology project 2006. Preliminary report of the first season. Pharos J Neth Inst Athens 14:29–46Google Scholar
  166. Van Winjgaarden GJM, Sotiriou A, Horn Lopes J, Gkouma M, Koster E, Stoker A, Susan D, Tourloukis V (2008) The Zakynthos archaeology project. Preliminary report of the 2008 season. Pharos J Neth Inst Athens 16:63–86Google Scholar
  167. Williams H (2007) The harbors of ancient lesbos. In: Betancourt P, Nelson MC, Williams H (eds) Krinoi Kai Limenes: studies in honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw. INSTAP Press, Pennsylvania, pp 107–116Google Scholar
  168. Zachos E, Dousougli A (2003) Lefkas: an overview of its history and archaeology through the archaeological museum exhibits. Hellenic Ministry of Culture – ΙΒ’ Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Athens (in Greek)Google Scholar
  169. Zavitsanou A, Sakellariou D, Rousakis G, Georgiou P, Galanidou, N (2015) Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Inner Ionian Sea during Late Pleistocene low sea level stands: preliminary results. Proceedings of the 11th Panhellenic Symposium on Oceanography and Fisheries, Mytilene, Greece, pp 997–1000Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of History and ArchaeologyUniversity of CreteRethymnoGreece

Personalised recommendations