Vascular Malformations

  • Shah-Naz H. KhanEmail author
  • Andrew J. Ringer


Endovascular interventions solely or in conjunction with other modalities, e.g., surgery, radiation, or a combination of these, play a crucial role in management of various vascular malformations. Embolic agents for this purpose include coils, Onyx®, PVA, and NBCA. Familiarity with these agents and catheters compatible with them for usage is important.


Therapeutic embolization Palliative treatment Transarterial embolization Transvenous embolization Superior ophthalmic vein AVM AVF CCF Coils Onyx NBCA PVA DMSO-compatible catheters Double-injection technique in AVM 

Suggested Readings

  1. 1.
    Berenstein A, Lasjaunias P, Ter Brugge KG. Surg Neuroangiogr. 2004;2(2):695–735 (Heidelberg: Springer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Halbach VV, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, et al. Carotid-cavernous fistulae: indications for urgent therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987;8:627–33.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hurst RW, Rosenwasser RH (eds). Interventional Neuroradiology. New York: Informa. 2008:231–238; 275–303; 335–351.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Onyx® Liquid Embolic System, Instructions for Use. Micro Therapeutics Inc., Irvine, CA.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Polyvinyl Alcohol Foam Embolization Particles. Instructions for use. Cook Medical.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Trufill® n-BCA Liquid Embolic system. Codman Product brochure.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yao TL, Eskioglu E, Ayad M, et al. Improved image interpretation with combined superselective and standard angiography (double injection technique) during embolization of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2008;62:140–1 (discussion 141).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of General and Endovascular Neurosurgery (IGEN)FlintUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, College of Human MedicineMichigan State UniversityFlintUSA
  3. 3.Mayfield ClinicChief of Neurosciences, TriHealth SystemCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations