Localized Event Explained-Partially Charred Surface

  • James E. SmallEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Fire book series (BRIEFSFIRE)


  • Visual Artifact

A partially charred surface area is found.
  • Evaluation

In order to burn away PCB surface material several things must be present:
  1. (1)

    A moist environment for several min at a time.

  2. (2)

    Repeated moist environment episodes in the presence of voltage and current.

  3. (3)

    An external supply of energy for a 1.574 mm thick FR4 laminate in the neighborhood of 39 J for 9 s to ignite and 47 J to sustain a flame for 11 s that is capable of carbonizing the material. For a 1.574 mm thick CEM-1 laminate this can occur with 27 J for 6 s to ignite and 157 J to sustain a flame for 35 s that is capable of carbonizing the material. See experiments #5, #9a and #9b of Chap.  14 for comparative details.



Opposite Polarity Conductive Path Visual Artifact Ample Supply Exposed Copper 
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  1. 1.
    Bumiller, E and Hillman, Hillman, Dr. Craig, “Review of Models for Time-to-Failure Due to Metallic Migration Mechanisms”, Last accessed June, 2016,

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fort WayneUSA

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