Cyclic Response of Natural Onsøy Clay

Part II: Constitutive Modeling
  • Thomas Barciaga
  • Nina MüthingEmail author
  • Maria Datcheva
  • Tom Schanz
Part of the Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics book series (LNACM, volume 82)


Geotechnical csonstruction projects in natural clay deposits are challenging because of the complex constitutive features of these clays (e.g. inherent and stress-induced anisotropy and destructuration). Cyclic loading, on the other hand, is typical for various geotechnical applications where natural clay deposits are involved such as wind and wave loads in relation to onshore and offshore foundations, ship locks or dams. This makes important to consider cyclic loads in the numerical simulations for geotechnical applications in natural clay deposits. Therefore, in case of natural clays it is essential to have proper constitutive models accounting for the clay material response to the cyclic nature of the loading in order to have reliable predictions of the time-dependent consolidation behavior and the corresponding development of the ground settlements. Within the present study the influence of the constitutive model on the numerical simulation of the natural clay consolidation under cyclic loading is qualitatively investigated employing the experimental results for a typical natural clay reported in the companion paper Cyclic response of natural Onsøy clay – Part I: Experimental analysis. The approach followed in this paper employs an adequate hierarchical constitutive soil model based on the bounding surface plasticity (BSP) concept. The hierarchical structure of the constitutive model makes it possible to investigate the importance of a particular feature of the model such as the inherent and the stress-induced anisotropy, the structure and the destructuration by activation/deactivation of the associated constitutive parameters. Finally, the model responses (such as the evolution of the excess pore-pressure and the settlement during cyclic loading) of each model of the hierarchical family are compared and discussed with respect to the necessity of the model complexity level. In order to calibrate the constitutive parameters a number of geotechnical experiments are numerically simulated considering natural and reconstituted Onsøy clay samples under drained and undrained hydraulic conditions. Moreover, the significant influence of the destructuration and the features of the BSP concept on the model response under consolidation induced by cyclic loading is highlighted. In conclusion, it is shown that the presented constitutive model based on the BSP concept is generally capable to predict the consolidation behavior of natural clay induced by cyclic loading. The model is suitable to simulate the main phenomena such as the pore-water pressure dissipation behavior and the associated but retarded evolution of the settlement.


Yield Surface Stress Path Constitutive Parameter Natural Clay Oedometer Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by the German Science Foundation (DFG) in the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 837 (subproject A5).


  1. 1.
    Anandarajah, A., Dafalias, Y.F.: Bounding surface plasticity III: application to anisotropic cohesive soils. J. Eng. Mech. 112(12), 1292–1318 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biot, M.A.: General theory of three dimensional consolidation. J. Appl. Phys. 12(2), 155–165 (1941)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burland, J.B.: The yielding and dilation of clay. Géotechnique 15(2), 211–214 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burland, J.B.: On the compressibility and shear strength of natural clays. Géotechnique 40(3), 329–378 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cotecchia, F., Chandler, R.J.: A general framework for the mechanical behavior of clays. Géotechnique 50(4), 431–447 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dafalias, Y.F.: Bounding surface plasticity I: mathematical foundation and hypoplasticity. J. Eng. Mech. 112(EM9), 966–987 (1986a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dafalias, Y.F.: An anisotropic critical state soil plasticity model. Mech. Res. Commun. 13(6), 341–347 (1986c)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dafalias, Y.F., Herrmann, L.R.: Bounding surface formulation of soil plasticity. In: Pande, G.N., Zienkiewicz, O.C. (eds.) Soil Mechanics - Transient and Cyclic Loads, pp. 253–282 (1982)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dafalias, Y.F., Herrmann, L.R.: Bounding surface plasticity II: application to isotropic cohesive soils. J. Eng. Mech. 112(12), 1263–1291 (1986b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dafalias, Y.F., Manzari, M.T., Papadimitriou, A.G.: SANICLAY: simple anisotropic clay plasticity model. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 30, 1231–1257 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dafalias, Y.F., Taiebat, M.: Anatomy of rotational hardening in clay plasticity. Géotechnique 63(16), 1406–1418 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dafalias, Y.F., Taiebat, M.: Rotational hardening with and without anisotropic fabric at critical state. Géotechnique 64(6), 507–511 (2014). Technical NoteGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gens, A., Nova, R.: Conceptual bases for a constitutive model for bonded soils and weak rocks. In: International Symposium on Geotechnical Engineering of Hard Soils-Soft Rocks, pp. 485–494. Balkema (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gens, A., Potts, D.M.: Critical state models in computational geomechanics. Eng. Comput. 5(3), 178–197 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang, J., Ling, H.I.: A framework of an anisotropic elastoplastic model for clays. Mech. Res. Commun. 37, 394–398 (2010)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiang, J., Ling, H.I., Kaliakin, V.N.: An associative and non-associative anisotropic bounding surface model for clay. J. Appl. Mech. 79(3), 031010 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaliakin, V.N., Dafalias, Y.F.: Simplifications to the bounding surface. Int. J. Num. Anal. Methods Geomech. 13, 91–100 (1989). Short communicationGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaliakin, V.N., Dafalias, Y.F.: Theoretical aspects of the elastoplastic-viscoplastic bounding surface model for cohesive soils. Soils Found. 30(3), 11–24 (1990a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaliakin, V.N., Dafalias, Y.F.: Verification of the elastoplastic-viscoplastic bounding surface model for cohesive soils. Soils Found. 30(3), 25–36 (1990b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lambe, T.W., Whitman, R.Y.: Soil Mechanics. Wiley, New York (1969)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lunne, T., Long, M., Forsberg, C.F.: Characterisation and engineering properties of Onsøy clay. In: Tan, T.S., Phoon, K,K., Hight, D.W., Leroueil, S. (eds.) Characterisation and Engineering Properties of Natural Soils, vol. 1, pp. 395–427. Swets & Zeitlinger (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mitchell, J.K., Soga, K.: Fundamentals of Soil Behavior, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perzyna, P.: Fundamental problems in viscoplasticity. Adv. Appl. Mech. 9, 243–377 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Potts, D.M., Zdravkovic, L.: Finite Element Analysis in Geotechnical Engineering - Theory. Telford, London (1999)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rezania, M., Taiebat, M., Poletti, E.: A viscoplastic SANICLAY model for natural soft soils. Comput. Geotech. 73, 128–141 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roscoe, K.H., Burland, J.B.: On the generalized stress strain behaviour of wet clay. In: Engineering Plasticity, pp. 535–609 (1968)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roscoe, K.H., Schofield, A.N., Thurairajah, A.: Yielding of clays in states wetter than critical. Géotechnique 13(3), 211–240 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roscoe, K.H., Schofield, A.N., Wroth, C.P.: On the yielding of soils. Géotechnique 8(1), 22–53 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schofield, A.N., Wroth, C.P.: Critical State Soil Mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New York (1968)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Seidalinov, G., Taiebat, M.: Bounding surface SANICLAY plasticity model for cyclic clay behavior. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 38(7), 702–724 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sheng, D., Sloan, S.W., Yu, H.S.: Aspects of finite element implementation of critical state models. Comput. Mech. 26, 185–196 (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sloan, S.W.: Substepping schemes for the numerical integration of elastoplastic stress-strain relations. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng. 24, 893–911 (1987)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sloan, S.W., Abbo, A.J., Sheng, D.: Refined explicit integration of elastoplastic models with automatic error control. Eng. Comput. 18(1–2), 121–194 (2001)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taiebat, M., Dafalias, Y.F., Peek, R.: A destructuration theory and its application to SANICLAY model. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 34(10), 1009–1040 (2010)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Taiebat, M., Kaynia, A.M., Dafalias, Y.F.: Application of an anisotropic constitutive model for structured clay to seismic slope stability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 137(5), 492–504 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wheeler, S., Näätänen, A., Karstunen, M., Lojander, M.: An anisotropic elastoplastic model for soft clays. Can. Geotech. J. 40(2), 403–418 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wichtmann, T.: Soil behaviour under cyclic loading - experimental observations, constitutive description and applications. Habilitationsschrift, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (2016)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wichtmann, T., Andersen, K.H., Sjursen, M.A., Berre, T.: Cyclic tests on high-quality undisturbed block samples of soft marine Norwegian clay. Can. Geotech. J. 50(4), 400–412 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zienkiewicz, O.C., Pande, O.C.: Some useful forms of isotropic yield surfaces for soil and rock mechanics. In: Finite Elements in Geomechanics, pp. 179–198. Wiley, New York (1977)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Barciaga
    • 1
  • Nina Müthing
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Datcheva
    • 2
  • Tom Schanz
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Foundation Engineering, Soil and Rock MechanicsRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations