Advertisement

Introduction to Sexual Medicine

  • Katerina A. Furman
  • Bret Becker
  • Waguih William IsHak
Chapter

Abstract

Sexual medicine is a field of medicine that focuses on sexual function and dysfunction. Sexual health is a fundamental aspect of physical and emotional well-being. Studies showed that approximately 43% of women and 31% of men suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. The most commonly experienced male sexual disorder is premature ejaculation; in females it is female sexual interest/arousal disorder. Other common dysfunctions are erectile disorder and female orgasmic disorder. In 2013, the DSM-5 was released, recategorizing, condensing, and redefining sexual dysfunctions. Propensity for sexual dysfunction can be heightened by biological, psychological, social, and environmental risk factors including diabetes mellitus, excessive alcohol use, hormone imbalances, trauma such as sexual assault, depression, tobacco use, spinal cord injury, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic illnesses. Treatment needs to integrate biological and psychosocial interventions including hormonal treatments (such as testosterone, estrogen), pharmaceutical treatments (such as PDE-5 inhibitors), surgical (such as penile implants), devices (such as vacuum devices), psychotherapy, and sex therapy. Sexual medicine is evolving, expanding, and advancing with recent strides in pharmacology, psychology, and relationship counseling, while focusing on the couple as the central hub for treatment is essential to a healthy sex life. Given the multifactorial aspects of sexual relationships, the implementation of the biopsychosocial model is vital to encompass the psychological, emotional, physiological, and social components of sexual function.

Keywords

Sexual medicine Sexual dysfunction DSM-5 Biopsychosocial treatment Couples 

References

  1. 1.
    Kolodny RC, Masters WH, Johnson VE. Textbook of sexual medicine. Boston, MA: Little Brown; 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosen RC. Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in men and women. Curr Psychiatr Rep. 2000;2(3):189–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sanders SA. Human sexuality in microsoft encarta online encyclopedia. http://encarta.msn.com. 2006.
  4. 4.
    Ignarro L. Nitric oxide: a unique endogenous signaling molecule in vascular biology. Nobel Lecture, December 8, 1998, posted in full text at http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1998/ignarro-lecture.pdf. 1998.
  5. 5.
    Berman J, Berman L, Bumiller E. For women only: a revolutionary guide to overcoming sexual dysfunction and reclaiming your sex life. New York, NY: Henry Holt Company; 2001.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IsHak WW, Tobia G. DSM-5 Changes in diagnostic criteria of sexual dysfunctions. Reprod Syst Sex Disord. 2013;2: 122. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-038X.1000122. Accessed 17 Sept 2016.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    McCabe M, Sharlip I, Atalla E, Balon R, Fisher A, Laumann E, et al. Definitions of sexual dysfunctions in women and men: a consensus statement from the fourth international consultation on sexual medicine 2015. J Sex Med. 2016;13(2):135–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 9.
    Allahdadi K, Tostes R, Webb R. Female sexual dysfunction: therapeutic options and experimental challenges. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2009;7(4):260–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 10.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Lewis RW, Fugl-Meyer KS, Bosch R, Fugl-Meyer AR, Laumann EO, Lizza E, Martin-Morales A. Epidemiology/risk factors of sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2004;1(1):35–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 12.
    Kandeel F. Male sexual function and its disorders: physiology, pathophysiology, clinical investigation, and treatment. Endocrine Rev. 2001;22(3):342–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 13.
    Penson D. Adrenal control of erectile function and nitric oxide synthase in the rat penis. Endocrinology. 1997;138(9):3925–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 14.
    IsHak WW. The guidebook of sexual medicine. Beverly Hills, CA: A&W Publishing; 2008.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA. 1999;281:537–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 16.
    McCabe MP, Sharlip ID, Lewis R, Atalla E, Balon R, Fisher AD, Laumann E, Lee SW, Segraves RT. Incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women and men: a consensus statement from the fourth international consultation on sexual medicine 2015. J Sex Med. 2016;13(2):144–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 17.
    Althof SE, Needle RB. Psychological and interpersonal dimensions of sexual function and dysfunction in women: an update. Arab J Urol. 2013;11(3):299–304.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 18.
    Crowe MRidley J. Therapy with couples. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Leiblum SPervin L. Principles and practice of sex therapy. New York: Guilford Press; 1980.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Assalian P. Psychological and interpersonal dimensions of sexual function and dysfunction [Internet]. Science Direct. 2016 [cited 25 Aug 2016]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aju.2013.07.007.Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Female Sexual Dysfunction Treatments and Drugs [Internet]. Mayo Clinic. 2016 [cited 1 Sept 2016]. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-sexual-dysfunction/basics/treatment/con-20027721.
  21. 22.
    Goodchild van Hilten L. How labeling a drug “female Viagra” is misleading women [Internet]. Elsevier Connect. 2016 [cited 2 Sept 2016]. https://www.elsevier.com/connect/how-labeling-a-drug-female-viagra-is-misleading-women.
  22. 23.
    Santoro N, Worsley R, Miller K, Parish S, Davis S. Role of estrogens and estrogen-like compounds in female sexual function and dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2016;13(3):305–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 24.
    IsHak W, Berman D, Peters A. Male anorgasmia treated with oxytocin. J Sex Med. 2008;5(4):1022–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 25.
    Behnia B, Heinrichs M, Bergmann W, Jung S, Germann J, Schedlowski M, et al. Differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on sexual experiences and partner interactions in couples. Horm Behav. 2014;65(3):308–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 26.
    Succu S, Sanna F, Melis T, Boi A, Argiolas A, Melis M. Stimulation of dopamine receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats induces penile erection and increases extra-cellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: involvement of central oxytocin. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52(3):1034–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 27.
    What is flibanserin and how does it work? [Internet]. ISSM. 2016 [cited 2 Sept 2016]. http://www.issm.info/sexual-health-qa/what-is-flibanserin-and-how-does-it-work/.
  27. 28.
    Female sexual dysfunction treatments and drugs—Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayoclinic. 2016 [cited 20 Sept 2016]. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-sexual-dysfunction/basics/treatment/con-20027721.
  28. 29.
    Ückert S, Oelke M, Albrecht K, Stief C, Jonas U, Hedlund P. Original research—basic science: immunohistochemical description of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes in the human labia minora. J Sex Med. 2011;4(3):602–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 30.
    Ückert S, Ehlers V, Nüser V, Oelke M, Kauffels W, Scheller F, et al. In vitro functional responses of isolated human vaginal tissue to selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors. World J Urol. 2005;23(6):398–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 31.
    IsHak WW, Mikhail AA, Amiri SR, Berman L, Vasa M. Sexual dysfunction. Focus. 2005;3:520–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katerina A. Furman
    • 1
  • Bret Becker
    • 2
  • Waguih William IsHak
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California BerkeleyLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryWright State University Boonshoft School of MedicineDaytonUSA
  3. 3.Cedars-Sinai Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral NeurosciencesCedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations