Scaled-Up Fabrication of Thin-Walled ZK60 Tubing Using Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

  • Scott WhalenEmail author
  • Vineet Joshi
  • Nicole Overman
  • Dustin Caldwell
  • Curt Lavender
  • Tim Skszek
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) has been scaled-up and applied to direct extrusion of thin-walled magnesium tubing. Using ShAPE, billets of ZK60A-T5 were directly extruded into round tubes having an outer diameter of 50.8 mm and wall thickness of 1.52 mm (extrusion ratio of 17.7). Due to material flow effects resulting from the simultaneous linear and rotational shear intrinsic to ShAPE, the ram force and k-factor during extrusion were just 40 kN (9000 lbf) and 3.33 MPa (0.483 ksi) respectively. This represents a >10 times reduction in k-factor, and therefore ram force, compared to conventional extrusion. The severe shearing conditions inherent to ShAPE resulted in microstructural refinement with an average grain size of 3.8 μm measured at the midpoint of the tube wall. Tensile testing per ATSM E-8 on specimens oriented parallel to the extrusion direction gave an ultimate tensile strength of 254.4 MPa and elongation of 20.1%. Specimens tested perpendicular to the extrusion direction had an ultimate tensile strength of 297.2 MPa and elongation of 25.0%.


Shear processing Direct extrusion Grain refinement ShAPE ZK60 Magnesium tubing 



The authors thank the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicles Technologies Office (DOE/VTO) for financial support of this work. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC06-76LO1830.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Whalen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vineet Joshi
    • 1
  • Nicole Overman
    • 1
  • Dustin Caldwell
    • 1
  • Curt Lavender
    • 1
  • Tim Skszek
    • 2
  1. 1.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  2. 2.Magna-CosmaBattle CreekUSA

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