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Realization of Ultrasound Enhanced Friction Stir Welded Al/Mg- and Al/Steel-Joints: Process and Robustness, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties

Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


As an innovative hybrid joining process ultrasound enhanced friction stir welding (USE-FSW) was successfully applied on Al/Mg-joints and offers a beneficial impact on the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. Whereas in conventional FSW of Al to Mg continuous band-shaped intermetallic layers of Al3Mg2 and Mg17Al12 are always present, the formation of these layers can be influenced positively by the ultrasound energy that is transferred into the stirred zone in USE-FSW. In this case, the intermetallic phases are spread over the complete nugget zone. Consequently, the tensile strength increases about 25% and the fatigue strength rises by up to 3.5 times. Based on this USE-FSW was investigated with regard to possible advantages for Al/steel-hybrid-joints. Preliminary investigations have shown significant differences in the microstructure of ultrasound enhanced and non-ultrasound enhanced EN AW-6061/DC04-joints. While conventional FSW led to hooks and larger particles of steel in the aluminum, USE-FSW-joints show remarkably smaller and more homogenous distributed steel particles in the nugget. Beside mechanical investigations, non-destructive examinations and corrosion tests were carried out.


  • Friction stir welding
  • Ultrasound enhancement
  • Dissimilar metals
  • Nondestructive testing
  • Corrosion

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We would like to thank the “German Research Foundation (DFG)” for the support of the present work as a part of the Priority Program 1640 “Joining by Plastic Deformation”.

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Correspondence to Marco Thomä .

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© 2017 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

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Thomä, M. et al. (2017). Realization of Ultrasound Enhanced Friction Stir Welded Al/Mg- and Al/Steel-Joints: Process and Robustness, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties. In: Hovanski, Y., Mishra, R., Sato, Y., Upadhyay, P., Yan, D. (eds) Friction Stir Welding and Processing IX. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series. Springer, Cham.

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