• Leonardo Morlino
  • Francesco Raniolo


The final chapter returns to the starting questions set out in Chapters 1 and 2, and summarizes the empirical results emerging from research beyond the analysis of the impact of the crisis in terms of traditional voting behaviour and growing electoral volatility. In doing so, it ironically highlights how, on the one hand, the traditional parties adapt to the new context and, on the other hand, how they coexist with the new protest parties. The concluding remarks also emphasize the partial reshaping of cleavages and the relevance of the establishment vs. anti-establishment cleavage for the emergence and success of the neo-populist parties. Finally, the additional empirical results show, then, two final questions. First, how because of the weakening of the three main channels of representation those became relatively more flexible and potentially interchangeable with citizens making use of vote, protest or more informally interest channel (see Chapter 4). Second, the patterns of change, already singled out and discussed in Chapter 2, eventually and counterintuitively imply a relaunch of the partisan channel. Of course, one where the old traditional mass parties belong to the past is impossible to be revitalized, and parties are rather characterized by leadership and digital technologies.


New cleavage Channels of representation Patterns change 


  1. Bailey, D. J. et al., eds. (2014), European Social Democracy During the Global Economic Crises. Renovation or Resignation? (Manchester University Press, Manchester).Google Scholar
  2. Bardi, L., Bartolini, S., & Trechsel, A. H. (2014), ‘Responsive and Responsible? The Role of Parties in Twenty-First Century Politics’, West European Politics, 37(2), pp. 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartolini, S. (2005), Restructuring Europe (Oxford University Press, Oxford).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartolini, S. (2011), ‘Cleavages, Social and Politics’, pp. 275–281, in B. Badie, D. Berg-Schlosser, & L. Morlino, eds., (2011), International Encyclopaedia of Political Science (Sage, London).Google Scholar
  5. Calise, M. (2015), La Democrazia del Leader (Roma-Bari, Laterza).Google Scholar
  6. Capoccia, G., & Kelemen, R. D. (2007), ‘The Study of Critical Junctures: Theory, Narrative and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutionalism’, World Politics, 59(3), pp. 341–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gourevitch, P. (1986), Politics in Hard Times: Comparative Responses to International Economic Crises (Cornell University Press, New York).Google Scholar
  8. Keane, J. (2009), The Life and Death of Democracy (Simon and Schuster, London).Google Scholar
  9. Kriesi, H., & Morlino, L. (2016), ‘Conclusion. What have we Learnt, and Where do we go From Here?’, pp. 307–325, in M. Ferrin & H. Kriesi, eds., How Europeans View and Evaluate Democracy (Oxford University Press, Oxford).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lipset, S. M., & Rokkan, S., eds. (1967), Party System and Voter Alignments (Yale University Press, New Haven).Google Scholar
  11. Mair, P. (2009), Representative versus Responsible Government, MPIfG Working Paper 09/8, Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung, Köln.Google Scholar
  12. Mair, P. (2013a), ‘Smaghi versus the Parties: Representative Government and Institutional Constraints’, pp. 143–168, in W. Streeck & A. Schäfer, eds., (2013), Politics in the Age of Austerity (Polity, Cambridge and Malden).Google Scholar
  13. Stigliz, J. (2016), Le nuove regole dell’economia (il Saggiatore, Milano).Google Scholar
  14. Collier, R. B., & Collier D. (1991), Shaping the political arena (University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame).Google Scholar
  15. Rosanvallon, P. (2006), La contre-démocratie. La politique à l’âge de la défiance (Éditions Seuil, Paris).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Morlino
    • 1
  • Francesco Raniolo
    • 2
  1. 1.Prof Political Science, Vice RectorLUISS Guido CarliRomaItaly
  2. 2.Scienze Politiche e SocialiUniversità della CalabriaArcavacata di RendeItaly

Personalised recommendations