New Patterns in Interests and Movements

  • Leonardo Morlino
  • Francesco Raniolo


The chapter starts with an analysis of the channels of political representation within democracies, by emphasizing its diversity and interdependence. At the same time, it shows that one of the main effects of the 2008 Great Recession has been the decline of all institutionalized channels, be they through elections and parties, or be they through interest groups and associations. Indeed, the crisis of interest associations, trade unions included, and of neo-corporatist arrangements has been a factor of weakness in the management of the crisis: the governments lost one of the main factors of regulations through the interest intermediate structures. This situation is clearly new with respect to what happened during the crisis of 1929, in post-war reconstruction, and in some respects, even during the stagflation of the 1970s. The crisis of functional channels favoured the formulation of selective austerity policies that have ended up aggravating the effects of the crisis and at the same time have fuelled the use of non-conventional channels of political expression with protest movements. The chapter also highlights the national characteristics of the relationships among the different channels of representation, while emphasizing the flexibility in their use by voters as a common factor in all four cases.


Interest groups Social movements Non-conventional participation 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Morlino
    • 1
  • Francesco Raniolo
    • 2
  1. 1.Prof Political Science, Vice RectorLUISS Guido CarliRomaItaly
  2. 2.Scienze Politiche e SocialiUniversità della CalabriaArcavacata di RendeItaly

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