Individual Emotions



This chapter comprises descriptions of the experiences, functions, causes, and consequences of happiness, interest, surprise, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, contempt, shame, guilt, pride, envy, and jealousy. Descriptions include reference to core relational themes, which refers to the meaning in terms of the harm or benefit for relationships which is implied in an emotion. A main point is the recognition of the significance of positive emotions in terms of the broaden and build theory. The chapter includes results from a study where the meaning of emotions was tested by rating scales for the extent to which each emotion was experienced as pleasant, tense (in terms of arousal) , controlled, and supportive of self-esteem. Also included are results from studies on persons’ awareness of physiological signals of individual emotions.


Emotion experience Emotion functions Individual emotions Positive emotions Negative emotions 

Further Reading

  1. Izard, C. E. (1991). The psychology of emotions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  2. Lewis, M. (2008). Self-Conscious emotions: Embarassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones & L. Feldman Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions. Third Edition (pp. 742–756). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  3. Power, M., & Dalgleish, T. (1997). Cognition and emotion (pp. 197–439). East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

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