Environmental Impact Assessment—State of the Art

  • Martina ZeleňákováEmail author
  • Lenka Zvijáková


Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is now 44 years old (beginning on 1 January 1970 when President Richard Nixon signed the National Environmental Policy Act in the USA). EIA is a systematic approach to identifying and evaluating positive and negative impacts on components of the environment that may arise from the implementation of infrastructure projects or policies (Petts 1999; Wang et al. 2006; Gilbuena et al. 2013). EIA is a mandatory process before approval of infrastructure projects with significant impacts on the environment (Tamura et al. 1994), such as roads (Zhou and Sheate 2011), water supply systems (Al-agha and Mortaja 2005) and flood protection constructions (Ludwig et al. 1995). Flood protection structures (FPS) have been created throughout the centuries to mitigate flood damage (Poulard et al. 2010; Gilbuena et al. 2013).


Risk Analysis Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Assessment Health Impact Assessment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental EngineeringTechnical University of KošiceKošiceSlovakia

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