Advertisement

Nano-additive Reinforcement of Thermoplastic Microballoon Epoxy Syntactic Foams

  • Kerrick R. DandoEmail author
  • David R. Salem
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Syntactic foams comprised of glass microballoons have gained considerable attention over the past several years due to mechanical and thermal properties that are advantageous for use as a core material in naval and aerospace applications. Recently, advancements in the production of thermoplastic microballoon syntactic foams have allowed for an increase in microballoon volume fraction (up to 90 volume fraction), with corresponding lower densities but reduced mechanical properties. In this work, carbon nanofibers and halloysite nanotubes were incorporated in thermoplastic microballoon-based syntactic foam to enhances its mechanical properties, and the effects of these two nanoscale reinforcements are compared. X-Ray micro-computed tomography (MCT) was employed to analyze the microstructure of the materials produced, and scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the dispersion of nano-additives within the resin. Through characterization of the tensile and compressive strength properties of these materials, it was observed that dramatic mechanical property enhancements can be engineered through additions of either nano-additive at specific loading levels.

Keywords

Syntactic foam Carbon nanofiber Nano-reinforcement 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the National Aeronautics & Space Administration’s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) program for the financial support of our research through grant (NASA Proposal # 11-EPSCoR-0049). Acknowledgements are also due to the Composite and Polymer Engineering (CAPE) Laboratory and staff for equipment usage, guidance and technical assistance with experimentation.

References

  1. 1.
    Gupta, N., Woldesenbet, E., & Sankaran, S. (2001). Studies on compressive failure features in syntactic foam material. Journal of Materials Science, 36(18), 4485–4491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gupta, N., & Woldesenbet, E. (2003). Hygrothermal studies on syntactic foams and compressive strength determination. Composite Structures, 61(4), 311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta, N. (2007). A functionally graded syntactic foam material for high energy absorption under compression. Materials Letters, 61(4), 979–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta, N., & Nagorny, R. (2006). Tensile properties of glass microballoon-epoxy resin syntactic foams. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 102(2), 1254–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Colloca, M., Gupta, N., & Porfiri, M. (2013). Tensile properties of carbon nanofiber reinforced multiscale syntactic foams. Composites Part B Engineering, 44(1), 584–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karthikeyan, C. S., & Sankaran, S. (2004). Elastic behaviour of plain and fibre-reinforced syntactic foams under compression. Materials Letters, 58(6), 995–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    d’Almeida, J. R. M. (1999). An analysis of the effect of the diameters of glass microspheres on the mechanical behavior of glass-microsphere/epoxy-matrix composites. Composites Science and Technology, 59(14), 2087–2091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mechanical property allowables generated for the solid rocket booster composite nose cap. (2000). United States. NASA. NASA Technical Report No. NASA/TM 2000-201252. Marshall Space Flight Center, AL.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Watkins, L. (1998). Syntactic foam buoyancy for production risers. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Offshore Mechanical and Artic Engineering. Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dando, K., & Salem, D. (2016). Production and characterization of epoxy syntactic foams highly loaded with thermoplastic microballoons. Manuscript Submitted for Publication.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta, N., & Maharsia, R. (2005). Enhancement of energy absorption in syntactic foams by nanoclay incorporation for sandwich core applications. Applied Composite Materials, 12(3–4), 247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maharsia, R., Gupta, N., & Jerro, H. D. (2006). Investigation of flexural strength properties of rubber and nanoclay reinforced hybrid syntactic foams. Materials Science and Engineering A, 417(1), 249–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maharsia, R. R., & Jerro, H. D. (2007). Enhancing tensile strength and toughness in syntactic foams through nanoclay reinforcement. Materials Science and Engineering A, 454, 416–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wouterson, E. M., Boey, F. Y., Wong, S. C., Chen, L., & Hu, X. (2007). Nano-toughening versus micro-toughening of polymer syntactic foams. Composites Science and Technology, 67(14), 2924–2933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deng, S., Zhang, J., Ye, L., & Wu, J. (2008). Toughening epoxies with halloysite nanotubes. Polymer, 49(23), 5119–5127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang, Y., Ye, L., Deng, S., Yang, C., & Yuan, W. (2012). Influences of processing methods and chemical treatments on fracture toughness of halloysite–epoxy composites. Materials and Design, 42, 471–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tang, Y., Deng, S., Ye, L., Yang, C., Yuan, Q., Zhang, J., et al. (2011). Effects of unfolded and intercalated halloysites on mechanical properties of halloysite–epoxy nanocomposites. Composites Part A Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42(4), 345–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASTM Standard D695-15. (2015). Standard test method for compressive properties of rigid plastics. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    ASTM Standard D1623-09. (2009). Standard test method for tensile and tensile adhesion properties of rigid cellular plastics. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Composite and Polymer Engineering (CAPE) LaboratorySouth Dakota School of Mines and TechnologyRapid CityUSA

Personalised recommendations