Advertisement

Effect of Hypoeutectic Sc Additions to Al-4.5 wt% Cu Under Different Cooling Rates

  • A.-A. BognoEmail author
  • J. Valloton
  • H. Henein
  • M. Gallerneault
  • D. Herlach
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Lightweight materials are the best response to improving performance and efficiency of sport and transportation industrial products. Aluminum is one of the most attractive lightweight materials due to its low density and a high strength to weight ratio achievable through cold working and/or heat treatment. Age hardenable Al–Cu alloys are one of the strongest aluminium alloys available. Sc, though very expensive, is renowned for yielding the highest strength increase per atomic percent of any alloying addition in Al through grain refinement of hyper-eutectic Sc compositions and precipitation hardening. This paper studies the solidification of Al-4.5 wt% Cu with minor Sc additions (hypo-eutectic compositions) over a wide range of cooling rates. The objective is to determine the minimum Sc addition for a maximum strengthening effect while reducing typical processing steps. Based on the microstructures and mechanical properties analyses, a cost and time effective processing route is proposed for the 2000 series aluminum alloys.

Keywords

Solidification Aluminum–copper–scandium Cooling rate 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Novelis, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the European Space Agency (ESA) for their financial support. Also the staff at the Institute of Materials Physics in Space (DLR) is acknowledged for their cooperation and help during EML experiments.

References

  1. 1.
    Royset, J. (2007). Scandium in aluminium alloys overview: Physical metallurgy, properties and applications. Metallurgical Science and Technology, 25(2), 11–21.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Norman, A. F., Prangnell, P., & McEwen, R. (1998). The solidification behaviour of dilute aluminium-scandium alloys. Acta Materialia, 46(16), 5715–5732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herlach, D. M. (2012). Containerless undercooling of drops and droplets. In Solidification of containerless undercooled melts (pp. 1–30).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Henein, H. (2002). Single fluid atomization through the application of impulses to a melt. Materials Science and Engineering A, 326(1), 92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bogno, A.-A., Valloton, J., Natzke, P., Yin, S., Herlach, D. M., & Henein, H. (2015). Scandium effects on Nucleation undercooling in Al–Cu droplets generated by impulse atomization and electro-magnetic levitation. In Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition 2015, MS and T 2015 (Vol. 2).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wiskel, J. B., Henein, H., & Maire, E. (2002). Solidification study of aluminum alloys using impulse atomization: Part I—Heat transfer analysis of an atomized droplet. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 41(1), 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prasad, A., Mosbah, S., Henein, H., & Gandin, C.-A. (2009). A solidification model for atomization. ISIJ International, 49(7), 992–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prasad, A., & Henein, H. (2008). Droplet cooling in atomization sprays. Journal Materials Science, 43(17), 5930–5941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wiskel, J. B., Navel, K., Henein, H., & Maire, E. (2002). Solidification study of aluminum alloys using impulse atomization: Part II. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 41(2), 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eskin, D., Du, Q., Ruvalcaba, D., & Katgerman, L. (2005). Experimental study of structure formation in binary Al–Cu alloys at different cooling rates. Materials Science and Engineering A, 405(1–2), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cochrane, R. F., Adkins, N. J., Mullis, A. M., & Farrell, L. (2013). Estimation of cooling rates during close-coupled gas atomization using secondary dendrite arm spacing measurement. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 44(4), 992–999.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Røyset, J., Ryum, N., Bettella, D., Tocco, A., Jia, Z., Solberg, J. K., et al. (2008). On the addition of precipitation- and work-hardening in an Al–Sc alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A, 483, 175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A.-A. Bogno
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Valloton
    • 1
  • H. Henein
    • 1
  • M. Gallerneault
    • 2
  • D. Herlach
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Alcereco Inc.KingstonCanada
  3. 3.DLR, Institute of Materials Physics in SpaceKölnGermany

Personalised recommendations