The Growth of Greater Manila

Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)


Manila is one of the largest megacities in the world. It has grown from the original settlements at the mouth of the Pasig River and the walled Spanish city of Intramuros. The American period saw major plans drawn by architect/planner Daniel Burnham to transform Manila in a US-style capital city, while the Commonwealth saw new plans to create a capital, Quezon City, also largely inspired by American models such as Washington DC. Those plans were only partially implemented. Today, Manila has become a complex metropolis, with several business centers taking over from downtown Manila. Among them, Makati, Ortigas and Bonifacio Global City appear as the true engines of economic growth in the country and islands of modern high-rise urban development in a sea of low-level constructions. The transport network organized around radial boulevards and two main ring roads (EDSA and C5) and three elevated rail lines, tries to organize the circulation flows in the city, which is now spreading much farther than the official limits of Metropolitan Manila.


Intramuros Burnham plan Quezon City Polycentric metropolis Urban sprawl 


  1. Alampay ML (2004) The process of gentrification: the case of the community around the Rockwell Center, Makati City, Philippines p 140.
  2. Alcazaren P (2012) The green, green (and maroon) grass of home, Philippine Star, 2 June 2012Google Scholar
  3. Alcazaren P (2013a) Reclaiming Manila’s sunset, Philippine Star, 9 Feb 2013Google Scholar
  4. Alcazaren P (2013b) Living high at Bonifacio, Philippine Star, 13 Apr 2013Google Scholar
  5. Andolong T (2015) Ayala Land to build new township to the north, Business Mirror, 17 Mar 2015Google Scholar
  6. Arcache M (2013) SM Aura means luxury, elegance, Philippine Daily Enquirer, 29 May 2013Google Scholar
  7. Arceo-Dumlao T (2014) UPCAT may be keeping away desirable students, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 29 Apr 2014Google Scholar
  8. Arceo-Dumlao T (2015) Araneta Center turns 60, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 12 Apr 2015Google Scholar
  9. Austria J (2015) ALI to develop Balintawak, Manila Standard, 16 Mar 2015Google Scholar
  10. Avendaño C (2013) CA rules Makati City, not Taguig, has jurisdiction over Fort Bonifacio, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 6 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  11. Back C (1932) The evolution of the city of Manila and its strategic significance. Aust Geogr 1(4):76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bankoff G (2007) Fire and quake in the construction of old Manila. Mediev Hist J 10(1/2):411–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernad M (1971) Quirino: maps and views of old Manila. Philipp Stud 19(3):551–553Google Scholar
  14. Bjork K (1998) The link that kept the Philippines Spanish: Mexican merchant interests and the Manila trade, 1571–1815. J World Hist 9(1):25–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boquet Y (2013a) Battling congestion in Manila: the EDSA problem. Transport and communications bulletin for Asia and the Pacific (UN-Escap, United Nations Economic and Social commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok), vol 82, p 45–59Google Scholar
  16. Boquet Y (2013b) Is Manila becoming a global city? The development of Bonifacio Global City (Taguig), Proceedings of the 18th Inter-university seminar on Asian megacities, Asian urbanism and beyond, Urban studies programme, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, USB key support, p 22Google Scholar
  17. Boquet Y (2014) MetroManila challenges: flooding, housing and mobility. In: Singh RB (ed) Urban development challenges, risks and resilience in Asian Megacities. Springer Publishing, Tokyo, pp 447–469Google Scholar
  18. Boquet Y (2016) From Paris and Beijing to Washington and Brasilia: the grand design of capital cities and the early plans for Quezon City. Philipp Stud Hist Ethographic Viewpoints 64(1):43–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bronger D, Engelbrecht K (1997) Metro Manila als Primatstadt im Lichte der Entwicklungstheorie. Geographie und Schule 19(110):39–44Google Scholar
  20. Bueza M (2014) What Quezon City could have looked like, Rappler, 12 Oct 2014Google Scholar
  21. Bunag Gatbonton E (2012) A short history and guide to Intramuros. Philippine Academic Consortium for Latin American Studies. Manila, p 5.
  22. Burce R (2015) New CBD soon to rise south of Metro Manila, ARCA South development ongoing, Manila Bulletin, 17 June 2015Google Scholar
  23. Burg D (1976) Chicago’s White City of 1893. University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, p 400Google Scholar
  24. Cabiao C (2013) Taguig, Makati in a ‘banner war’ over Fort, Rappler, 3 Sep 2013Google Scholar
  25. Camba A (2011) Private-led suburbanization: capital accumulation and real estate development in postwar greater Manila, 1945–1960. Philipp Soc Sci Rev 63(2):1–29Google Scholar
  26. Camus M (2015) New township projects to sustain Megaworld’s growth, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 20 June 2015Google Scholar
  27. Clossey L (2006) Merchants, migrants, missionaries and globalization in the early-modern Pacific. J Glob Hist 1(1):41–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Co E (2010) Makati City as a liveable city lines in pleasant places. Agham-Tao 19:48–55Google Scholar
  29. Comptech Asia (1978) The national government center. Philipp Plan J 9(2):1–6Google Scholar
  30. De La Cruz R (2015) Fort Bonifacio eclipsing Makati CBD, Manila Standard, 3 Jan 2015Google Scholar
  31. De La Fuente F (2012) New business districts in Metro Manila to sustain growth, Business World, 18 Jan 2012Google Scholar
  32. De Souza Pinto P (2013) Chinchéus and Sangleys. Ten remarks on the Chinese Presence in Melaka and Manila (16th–17th Centuries). Rev Cult 43:59–69Google Scholar
  33. Dick H, Rimmer P (1998) Beyond the third World City: the new urban geography of Southeast Asia. Urban Stud 35(12):2303–2321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Doran C (1993) Spanish and Mestizo women of Manila. Philipp Stud 41(3):269–286Google Scholar
  35. Duldulao M (1993) Makati: a vision of tomorrow. Japuzinni Publishing Division, Makati, 251Google Scholar
  36. Dumlao D (2013) Metro Manila running out of office space, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 3 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  37. Ermitanio N (2015) Pocket urban development to rise north of Metro Manila, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 21 Mar 2015Google Scholar
  38. Esplanada J (2014) DPWH set to implement 5 major road projects in Manila, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 5 May 2014Google Scholar
  39. Estrella V, Mansujeto P (2012) People of Palañac’s Resistance against Limahong, Hindering his conquest of Manila as observed by the leading Spanish chroniclers. Philipp State Coll Aeronaut Res J 3:17–32Google Scholar
  40. Eusebio ML (1997) Transforming the urban landscape: an analysis of patterns, problems and prospects of Metro Manila. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master in City Planning, Cambridge, p 70Google Scholar
  41. Evangelista Torres C (2011) The Americanization of Manila, 1898–1921. University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City, 266Google Scholar
  42. Fabella F (2013a) Taguig girds for battle on Global City, Manila Standard, 7 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  43. Fabella F (2013b) Fort unrest: surveyors, watchmen in a row, Manila Standard, 16 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  44. Fabella F (2013c) Boni territorial row heats up. Makati police control pressed, Manila Standard, 28 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  45. Faix U (2007) Bonifacio Global City. Ideal Manila, p 6.
  46. Fernandez D (1988) Pompas y Solemnidades: church celebrations in Spanish Manila and the native theater. Philipp Stud 36(4):403–426Google Scholar
  47. Festin-Baybay D, Marquez A (2001) Palanyag to Parañaque: a history. E. Lopez Printing Enterprises, Parañaque, p 329Google Scholar
  48. Flores W (2009a) BCDA at forefront of RP’s infra development, Philippine Star, 26 Aug 2009Google Scholar
  49. Flores W (2009b) Makati CBD comes alive as one of Asia’s exciting 24/7 cities, Philippine Star, 13 Sep 2009Google Scholar
  50. Flynn D, Giraldez A (1995a) Born with a “Silver Spoon”: the origin of world trade in 1571. J World Hist 6(2):201–221Google Scholar
  51. Flynn D, Giraldez A (1995b) Silk for silver: Manila-Macao trade in the 17th century. Philipp Stud 44(1):52–68Google Scholar
  52. Gamil J, Camus M (2014) Motorists advised on 13 road projects till 2016, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 23 Jan 2014Google Scholar
  53. Garcia R (2013) SM Mall in Fort Boni vies as 1st ‘green’ shopping hub, Manila Standard, 11 May 2013Google Scholar
  54. García-Abásolo AF (1982) La expansión mexicana hacia el Pacífico: La primera colonización de Filipinas (1570–1580). Hist Mex 32(1):55–88Google Scholar
  55. García-Abásolo AF (1995) Spanish setllers in the Philippines, 1571–1599.
  56. Garrido M (2013) The ideology of the dual city: the modernist ethic in the corporate development of Makati City, Metro Manila. Int J Urban Reg Res 37(1):165–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gillette H (1989) White City, Capital city. Chicago Hist 18(4):26–45Google Scholar
  58. Go M (2009) Bonifacio Global City connects to the metropolis and to the world, The Philippine Star, 30 Aug 2009Google Scholar
  59. Goma D (2012) Control, Espacio Urbano e Identitad en la Filipinas Colonial España; el Caso de Intramuros, Manila (Siglos XVI–XVII), Scripta Nova, Revista Electronica de Geografia y Ciencias Sociales. vol XVI, núm. 418 (19),
  60. Gomez JE (2013) Utopia, Bensalem, Atlantis and the Philippine City: the challenges of linking selected arcadian literature to pinoy urban reality. Humanit Diliman 10(2):1–28Google Scholar
  61. Guéguen C (2014) Des déplacements à la stratification des mobilités ? L’expérience du métro à Manille. Bulletin de l’Association de Géographes Français 91(4):479–499Google Scholar
  62. Hilario E (2015) Taguig City tackles drugs and crime, attracts more investors, Business Mirror, 24 Aug 2015Google Scholar
  63. Hines T (1972) The Imperial Façade: Daniel H. Burnham and American architectural planning in the Philippines. Pac Hist Rev 41(1):33–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hines T (1991) The Imperial Mall: the city beautiful movement and the Washington plan of 1901–1902. In: Longstreth R (ed) The Mall in Washington. University Press of New England, Hanover, pp 79–99Google Scholar
  65. Hogan T et al (2012) Asian urbanisms and the privatization of cities. Cities 29(1):59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Horario R (2013) Taguig, Makati personnel in tense face-off, Manila Times, 15 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  67. Huetz de Lemps X (1998) Nommer la ville: les usages et les enjeux du toponyme “Manila” au XIXe siècle. Genèses 33:28–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Huetz de Lemps X (2001) Waters in nineteenth century Manila. Philipp Stud 49(4):488–517Google Scholar
  69. Huetz de Lemps X (2009) La capitalidad de Manila y el archipiélago filipino a finales del siglo XIX. In: Moulin Civil F, Naranjo C, Huetz de Lemps X (eds) De la isla al archipiélago en el mundo hispano. Casa de Velazquez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, pp 89–100Google Scholar
  70. Iaccarino U (2008) Manila as an international entrepôt: Chinese and Japanese trade with the Spanish Philippines at the close of the 16th century. Bull Port Jap Stud 16:71–81Google Scholar
  71. Jimenez Verdejo JR, Cabeza-Laines JM, Pulido-Arcas JA, Rubio-Bellido C (2014) Spanish fortifications in Asia: a case study of Intramuros district in Manila—current situation and future prospects. WIT Trans Built Environ 143:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kelly P (1998) The politics of urban-rural relations: land use conversion in the Philippines. Environ Urban 10(1):35–54Google Scholar
  73. Kelly P (1999) Everyday urbanization: the social dynamics of development in Manila’s extended metropolitan region. Int J Urban Reg Res 23(2):283–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kelly P (2003) Urbanization and the politics of land in the Manila region. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci 590:170–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kelly P (2009) From global production networks to global reproduction networks: households, migration, and regional development in cavite, the Philippines. Reg Stud 43(3):449–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Klaus S (1991) Efficiency, economy, beauty: the city planning reports of Frederick Law Olsmted Jr., 1905–1915. J Am Plann Assoc 57(4):456–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kleibert JM, Kippers L (2015) Living the good life? The rise of urban mixed-use enclaves in Metro Manila. Urban Geogr 27(3):373–395Google Scholar
  78. Laquian A (2005) Beyond metropolis: the planning and governance of Asia’s mega-urban regions. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  79. Laquian A (2011) The planning and governance of Asia’s mega-urban regions. In: Population distribution, urbanization, internal migration and development: an international perspective. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, pp 302–322Google Scholar
  80. Lopez S (1973) Quezon City: Cinderella capital of the Philippines. Philipp Plan J 4(2):9–14Google Scholar
  81. MacLang A (2014) Rivals or allies; urban planning and real-estate development, Business Mirror, 9 Dec 2014Google Scholar
  82. MacLang A (2015a) Just a walk away: the rise of transit-oriented developments, Business Mirror, 9 June 2015Google Scholar
  83. MacLang A (2015b) The rise of the township: mixed-use development as the new norm, Business Mirror, 6 Oct 2015Google Scholar
  84. Madrid R (2012) A history of disastrous fires in Philippine Chinatown. Philipp Soc Sci Rev 64(2):1–14Google Scholar
  85. Malaque I, Yokohari M (2007) Urbanization process and the changing agricultural landscape pattern in the urban fringe of Metro Manila, Philippines. Environ Urban 19(1):191–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Malubay E (2013) Transportation for a city that works: Bonifacio Global City, unpublished report, Quezon City, University of the Philippines Diliman, Dept of Geography, Sep 2013, p 15Google Scholar
  87. Mangawang C (2015) Arca South new business, lifestyle center, Philippine daily inquirer, 13 June 2015Google Scholar
  88. McGee T (1991) The emergence of Desakota Regions in Asia. Expanding a hypothesis. In: Ginsburg N, Koppel B, McGee TG (eds) The extended Metropolis. Settlement transition in Asia. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  89. McKeown A (2007) Periodizing globalization. Hist Work J 63(1):218–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Merueñas M (2013) Rich get richer: Makati gains while Taguig loses Fort Boni in court decision, GMA News Online, 5 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  91. Mesquida J (2009) Macao and Manila: European settlements in Southeast Asia.
  92. Michel B (2010) Going global, veiling the poor: Global City imaginaries in metro Manila. Philipp Stud 58(3):383–406Google Scholar
  93. Montes C (2014) American capitals: a historical geography. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Morley I (2011) The cultural expansion of America: imperialism, civic design and the Philippines in the early 1900s. Eur J Am Cult 29(3):229–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Morley I (2012) City designing and nationhood during the early 1900s: civic design in the Philippines, São Paulo, Proceedings of the 15th international planning history society conference.
  96. Morley I (2016) Modern urban designing in the Philippines, 1898–1916. Philipp Stud Hist Ethograph Viewpoints 64(1):3–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Murakami A, Palijon A (2005) Urban sprawl and land use characteristics in the urban fringe of Metro Manila, Philippines. J Asian Architecture Build Eng 4(1):177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Olds K (1995) Globalization and the production of new urban spaces: pacific rim megaprojects in the late 20th century. Environ Plan A 27(11):1713–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ong P, Pedragosa M, De Guia M (1999) Wildlife inventory of the University of the Philippines (UP) Diliman and the Ateneo de Manila University Campus Diliman, Quezon City, Luzon, Philippines. Sci Diliman 11(1):6–20Google Scholar
  100. Ortega AA (2012) Desakota and beyond: neoliberal production of suburban space in Manila’s fringe. Urban Geograph 33(8):1118–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ortega AA (2014) Mapping Manila’s mega-urban region. A spatio-demographic accounting using small-area census data. Asian Popul Stud 10(2):208–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Palafox F (2014a) Revisiting Daniel Burnham’s plan for Manila and Baguio, Manila Times, 6 Aug 2014Google Scholar
  103. Palafox F (2014b) The city beautiful movement and importance of breathing spaces, The Manila Times, 22 Oct 2014Google Scholar
  104. Palafox F (2014c) Daniel Burnham’s plan for Manila designed for urban resiliency, The Manila Times, 29 Oct 2014Google Scholar
  105. Pante M (2011) Peripheral pockets of paradise: perceptions of health and geography in early twentieth-century manila and its environs. Philipp Stud 59(2):187–212Google Scholar
  106. Pante M (2012) The cocheros of American-occupied Manila. Represent persistence. Philipp stud 60(4):429–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pante M (2014) Mobility and modernity in the urban transport systems of colonial Manila and Singapore. J Soc Hist 47(4):855–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pante M (2016) Urban mobility and a healthy city: intertwined transport and public health policies in American-Colonial Manila. Philipp Stud Hist Ethograph Viewpoints 64(1):73–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Peterson J (1976) The city beautiful movement. Forgotten origins and lost meanings. J Urban Hist 2(4):415–434Google Scholar
  110. Peterson J (1985) The nation’s first comprehensive city plan a political analysis of the McMillan plan for Washington, D.C., 1900–1902. J Am Plann Assoc 51(2):134–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Peterson A (2011) What really made the world go around? Indio contributions to the Acapulco-Manila galleon trade, explorations, a graduate student. J Southeast Asian Stud 11(1):3–18Google Scholar
  112. Poco L (2008) From urban fringe to urban spine: the case of Epifanio De los Santos avenue in the context of metropolitan Manila, Philippines. National University of Singapore, Master of Arts (Urban Design), Singapore, p 78Google Scholar
  113. Quirino C (1971) Maps and views of old Manila. Maharnilad, Manila, 88Google Scholar
  114. Rau S, Corpuz A (2012) Without planning? Incremental emergence of high density mixed use centres in Mega Manila. REAL Corp 2012 Tagungsband, Re-mixing the city. Towards sustainability and resilience?, Schwechat, 14-16 may 2012, pp. 1093-1102,
  115. Reed R (1978) Colonial Manila: the context of hispanic urbanism and process of morphogenesis. University of California Press, Berkeley, 129.Google Scholar
  116. Requejo R (2015) Fort Bonifacio claim denied, Manila Standard, 6 Feb 2015Google Scholar
  117. Reyes M (1998) Spatial structure of metro Manila. Genesis, growth and development. Philipp Plann J 29(2):1–34Google Scholar
  118. Reyes R (2014) A demand for office space in Aseana City, Business Mirror, 4 Nov 2014Google Scholar
  119. Reyes R (2015) An epitome of luxury and secured living, Business Mirror, 26 May 2015Google Scholar
  120. Roderos R (2013) Reshaping metro Manila. Gentrification, displacement, and the challenge facing the urban capital. Soc Transform 1(2):79–103Google Scholar
  121. Romulo B (2013) Burnham’s plan for Roxas Boulevard, Manila Bulletin, 5 Sep 2013Google Scholar
  122. Ruiz-Stovel G (2009) Chinese merchants, silver Galleons, and ethnic violence in Spanish Manila, 1603–1686. México y la Cuenca del Pacífico 12(36):47–63Google Scholar
  123. Salazar T (2013a) What makes up an ideal CBD, EUD? Philippine daily inquirer, 22 Mar 2013Google Scholar
  124. Salazar T (2013b) Implications of a territorial dispute. Makati-Taguig tug-of-war, Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 9th, 2013 SANTOS, Pat (2013). Makati to Taguig: enough of drama, just present the evidence, Daily Tribune, 3 Sep 2013Google Scholar
  125. Santos T (2008) Rediscovering heritage architecture in Manila’s U-Belt, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 31 May 2008Google Scholar
  126. Santos P (2013a) Makati tells Taguig: get better lawyers, stop bullying BGC locators, Daily Tribune, 4 Sep 2013Google Scholar
  127. Santos P (2013b) Taguig, Makati reconcile over BGC boundary row, Daily Tribune, 10 Sep 2013Google Scholar
  128. Sarmiento MG (2015) A new landmark to rise in Quezon City, Business Mirror, 21 July 2015Google Scholar
  129. Satre G (1998) The metro Manila LRT system. A historical perspective. Japan Railw Transp Rev 16:33–37Google Scholar
  130. Savage V (1984) Western impressions of nature and landscape in Southeast Asia. Singapore University Press, Singapore, 456Google Scholar
  131. Shatkin G (2006) Colonial capital, modernist capital, global capital: the changing political symbolism of urban space in Metro Manila, Philippines. Pac Aff 78(4):577–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shatkin G (2008) The city and the bottom line: urban megaprojects and the privatization of planning in Southeast Asia. Environ Plan A 40(2):383–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Silao F (1969) Burnham’s plan for Manila. Philipp Plan J 1(1):10–17Google Scholar
  134. Silverio I (2012) In Makati, the poor of Guatemala street know nothing of the city’s wealth, Bulatlat, 15 Aug 2012Google Scholar
  135. Singh Boori M et al (2016) Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis. Data Brief 7:1576–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stern R, Gastil R (1991) A temenos for democracy: the Mall in Washington and its influence. In: Longstreth R (ed) The mall in Washington. University Press of New England, Hanover, pp 263–278Google Scholar
  137. Tan M (2014) Diliman’s Wildlife, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 19 Nov 2014Google Scholar
  138. Tremml B (2012) When political economies meet: Spain, China and Japan in Manila, 1571–1644, Ph. D. Dissertation, Vienna, Universität Wien, Dept of History, p 391Google Scholar
  139. Vallejo B (2008) Spatial patterns of bird diversity and abundance in an urban tropical landscape: The University of the Philippines (UP) Diliman campus. Sci Diliman 20(1):1–10Google Scholar
  140. Vallejo B, Aloy A (2014) Responses of the bird community in the University of the Philippines Diliman after campus redevelopment and the decline of two common urban bird species. Philipp Sci Lett 7(1):55–61Google Scholar
  141. Vilas AL (2012). Makati still richest city, Manila Bulletin, 16 Oct 2012Google Scholar
  142. Villiers J (1987) Portuguese Malacca and Spanish Manila. Two concepts of empire. In: Ptak R (ed) Aspects in history and economic history sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, pp 37–57Google Scholar
  143. Visconti K (2011) The man who developed the soul of Bonifacio Global City, Rappler, 6 Dec 2011Google Scholar
  144. Viuya K (1998) Demand for high-end residential and commercial space. The case of Makati City. Philipp Plan J 29(2):35–57Google Scholar
  145. Wilson W (1989) The city beautiful movement. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 365Google Scholar
  146. Zoleta-Nantes D (1992) Changes in land use of irrigated paddies: a study of land conversion in Plaridel, Bulacan. Philipp Soc Sci Rev 1(4):129–158Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département de GéographieUniversité de BourgogneDijonFrance

Personalised recommendations