Advertisement

The Logic of Selecting an Appropriate Map Projection in a Decision Support System (DSS)

  • Michael P. FinnEmail author
  • E. Lynn Usery
  • Laura N. Woodard
  • Kristina H. Yamamoto
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)

Abstract

There are undeniable practical consequences to consider when choosing an appropriate map projection for a specific region. The surface of a globe covered by global, continental, and regional maps are so singular that each type distinctively affects the amount of distortion incurred during a projection transformation because of the an assortment of effects caused by distance, direction, scale , and area. A Decision Support System (DSS) for Map Projections of Small Scale Data was previously developed to help select an appropriate projection. This paper reports on a tutorial to accompany that DSS. The DSS poses questions interactively, allowing the user to decide on the parameters, which in turn determines the logic path to a solution. The objective of including a tutorial to accompany the DSS is achieved by visually representing the path of logic that is taken to a recommended map projection derived from the parameters the user selects. The tutorial informs the DSS user about the pedigree of the projection and provides a basic explanation of the specific projection design. This information is provided by informational pop-ups and other aids.

Keywords

Geographic Information System Decision Support SystemDecision Support System Equal Area Conic Projection Equal Area Projection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Mr. Jason Trent and Mr. James Nelson, two former USGS Computer Scientist Trainees, for their work on this version of the DSS. In particular, we are most grateful to Mr. James Nelson for his outstanding efforts on the tutorial and the corresponding Java development. In addition, we thank Misters David M. Mattli and Brian Passuello, USGS Computer Scientists for assistance in keeping the DSS current. Further, we thank Professor Emeritus Nedjeljko Frančula, University of Zagreb, for his valuable comments during the review of the manuscript.

References

  1. Brown BH (1935) Conformal and equiareal world maps. Am Math Mon 42:212–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Canters F (2002) Small-scale map projection design. Taylor & Francis, LoondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Capek R (2001) Which is the best projection for the word map? In: Proceedings of the 20th international cartographic conference (Beijing, China), vol 5, pp 3084–93. http://icaci.org/documents/ICC_proceedings/ICC2001/icc2001/file/f24014.doc
  4. De Genst W, Canters F (1996) Development and implementation of a procedure for automated map projection selection. Cartography Geogr Inf Syst 23(3):145–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Finn MP, Woodard LN (2005) User’s guide for the decision support system for map projections of small scale data, ver. 2.0. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1335Google Scholar
  6. Finn MP, Usery EL, Posch ST, Seong JC (2004) A decision support system for map projections of small scale data. U.S. Geological Survey. Department of the Interior. Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5297Google Scholar
  7. Finn MP, Steinwand DR, Trent JR, Buehler RA, Mattli D, Yamamoto KH (2012) A program for handling map projections of small scale geospatial raster data. Cartographic Perspect 71:53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goldberg DM, Gott JR III (2007) Flexion and skewness in map projections of the earth. Cartographica 42(4):297–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hu Z, Zhu H, Li L, Xing Y (2007) COM-based expert system for map projection selection. In: Li M, Wang J (eds) Geoinformatics 2007: cartographic theory and models, proceedings of the SPIE, vol 6751. doi: 10.1117/12.759722
  10. Lee T, Birk RJ (2003) Connecting earth observation to decision making. EOM: Earth Obs Mag 12(2):2–4 (Professional Surveyors Publishing Company, Inc., Fredrick, MD)Google Scholar
  11. Main M, Savitch W (2001) Data Structures and other objects using C++, 2nd edn. Addison Wesley, Boston, p 459Google Scholar
  12. Maling DH (1973) Coordinate systems and map projections. George Philip and Son Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Nyerges TL, Jankowski P (1989) A knowledge-base for map projection selection. Am Cartographer 16(1):29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. PathAway (2004) Map projections description. http://www.pathaway.com/mapproj.htm. Accessed 24 Oct 2012
  15. Robinson A, Sale R, Morrison J (1978) Elements of cartography, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Savard JJG (2012) Map projections. http://www.quadibloc.com/maps/mapint.htm. Accessed 15 Jan 2013
  17. Slocum TA, McMaster RB, Kessler FC, Howard HH (2009) Thematic cartography and geovisualization, 3rd edn. Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall, NJGoogle Scholar
  18. Snyder JP (1987) Map projections—a working manual. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1395. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  19. Snyder JP (1993) Flattening the earth: two thousand years of map projections. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  20. Snyder JP, Voxland PM (1989) An album of map projections. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1453. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Stoker JJ (1961) Developable surfaces in the large. Commun Pure Appl Math 14(3):627–635. doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160140333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Strahler AN, Strahler AH (1979) Elements of physical geography, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Strebe D (2010) Map projection essentials. http://www.mapthematics.com/Essentials.php. Accessed: 4 Oct 2012
  24. Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2005) The Java(TM) Tutorials. http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/. Accessed 24 Aug 2010
  25. Tobler WR (1962) A classification of map projections. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 52(2):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tobler WR (1963) Geographical area and map projections. Geogr Rev 53(1):59–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tobler WR (1979) A transformational view on cartography. Am Cartographer 6(2):101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Trewartha GT, Horn LH (1980) An Introduction to climate, Fitfth edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Usery EL (2001) Peters’ projection. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Bulletin, No. 193, Nov 2001Google Scholar
  30. Usery EL, Seong JC, Steinwand DR, Finn MP (2003) Accurate projection of small-scale raster datasets. In: Proceedings 21st international cartographic conference, Durban, South Africa. International Cartographic AssociationGoogle Scholar
  31. Voxland PM (1978) World mapping and projection program: reference manual. Regents of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
  32. Yang Q, Snyder JP, Tobler W (2000) Map projection transformation: principles and applications. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael P. Finn
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. Lynn Usery
    • 2
  • Laura N. Woodard
    • 2
  • Kristina H. Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information ScienceU.S. Geological Survey (CEGIS), Denver Federal CentreDenverUSA
  2. 2.Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information ScienceU.S. Geological Survey CEGISRollaUSA

Personalised recommendations