Simultaneous MRI and 18F-FDG-PET Imaging in Multiple Myeloma: A Model for Evaluation of the Disease and Therapeutic Changes in SCID-hu Mice

Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy in which abnormal plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow manifesting as osteolytic lesions in approximately 80% of the patients. Since bone disease is a hallmark of MM, sensitive imaging techniques directed at the detection of early bone lesions may be predictive of MM progression. Even though the current guideline for assessment of MM involves traditional skeletal survey, its limitations are well documented. However, several techniques have evolved in the preclinical cancer drug discovery including molecular and non-invasive imaging techniques, such as, low dose CT, molecularly targeted PET, MRI, single positron emission computed tomography, ultrasound and approaches like bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging. These techniques hold great promise in early diagnosis and monitoring of the disease and each has its share of advantages and disadvantages. An ideal technique should not alter the subject, should allow repeated measurements during the time course of the disease, should be sensitive enough to detect early disease and should have reasonably high specificity. However such technique is difficult to devise and test directly in human subjects due to technical challenges and ethical considerations and most of the pre-clinical research is done on the small animals.

This chapter will review some of the available molecular and conventional imaging techniques in multiple myeloma with emphasis on the combined use of MRI and FDG-PET scanning in murine model that can accurately monitor the extent and severity of MM, in real time both at molecular and cellular level. In the experience of the authors combining MRI and FDG-PET improves accuracy in screening and therapy related changes in myeloma. This approach can provide strategies that translate into the clinical paradigm and help to understand the biology of myeloma.

Keywords

Molecular imaging MRI PET Radiography ELISA Myeloma SCID-hu 

Abbreviations

FDG-PET

18F–Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography

ASCT

Autologous stem cell transplantation

BLI

Bioluminescence imaging

CAR-T

Chimeric antigen receptor-T

CT

Computed tomography

DCE-MRI

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Exp-NK

Expanded natural killer

hIg

Human immunoglobulins

iNKT

Invariant natural killer T cells

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MGUS

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

MM

Multiple myeloma

NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull-Hu

Non-obese diabetic-SCID-IL2 receptor gamma null-human

PET

Positron emission tomography

SCID

Severe-combined immunodeficiency

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by Medical Research Endowment Fund, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. We acknowledge support from Dr. M.J. Borrelli and technical assistance from A. Terri. We would like to thank A. Greenway and J.K. Khan for animal handling support.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Myeloma InstituteUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)Little RockUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

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