Advertisement

Metadata in Long-Term Digital Preservation

Chapter
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 700)

Abstract

Metadata has been used to describe digital data for several years. First metadata standards were created in the nineties. Particularly important proved to be Dublin Core designed for the description of web-based resources (1995). At the same time Exif standard was created, determining mainly technical metadata used to describe parameters of digital images and information on equipment used. Since that time various other types of metadata have been created, e.g. rights metadata, provenance, structural, and many domain-oriented standards. Long-term digital archives usually preserve all metadata transferred to them with corresponding digital objects and often use a subset of obtained metadata to manage archive assets. They also create preservation metadata, which describe processes and preservation actions applied to digital objects in the archives. In this chapter basic information about metadata in long-term digital archives is given.

Keywords

Digital Archive Digital Preservation Metadata Standard Descriptive Metadata Open Archival Information System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Digital Preservation Handbook Glossary. Digital Preservation Coalition http://www.handbook.dpconline.org/glossary. Access: 2016-10-20.
  2. 2.
    Digital Preservation Metadata. Angela Dappert, The British Library, Planets, PREMIS EC, Barcelona, March 2009 http://www.planets-project.eu/docs/presentations/Dappert_PreservationMetadata.pdf. Access: 2016-10-20.
  3. 3.
    What is Provenance. W3C http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/What_Is_Provenance. Access: 2016-10-20.
  4. 4.
    Visual Resources Association http://www.vraweb.org/index.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  5. 5.
    Directory Interchange Format DIF. Global Change Master Directory http://www.gcmd.nasa.gov/add/difguide/index.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  6. 6.
    METS: Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  7. 7.
    PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  8. 8.
    Simple Dublin Core https://www.dublincore.org/documents/1998/09/dces/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  9. 9.
    EBU Core metadata set for Radio archives, Tech 3293, version 1.0, 2001 http://www.tech.ebu.ch/publications/tech3293. Access: 2016-10-20.
  10. 10.
    European Broadcasting Union http://www.ebu.ch/home. Access: 2016-10-20.
  11. 11.
    Dublin Core Element Set to GCMD Directory Interchange Format DIF. Global Change Master Directory http://www.gcmd.nasa.gov/add/standards/dublin_to_dif.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  12. 12.
    The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, v. 2.0, http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/openarchivesprotocol.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  13. 13.
    Dublin Core Qualifiers http://www.dublincore.org/documents/2000/07/11/dcmes-qualifiers/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  14. 14.
    DCMI Metadata Terms http://www.dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  15. 15.
    MARC Code List for Relators http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/relaterm.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  16. 16.
    Guidelines for implementing Dublin Core in XML http://www.dublincore.org/documents/dc-xml-guidelines/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  17. 17.
    XML Schema for Simple Dublin Core 2002 http://www.dublincore.org/schemas/xmls/simpledc2002/1212.xsd. Access: 2016-10-20.
  18. 18.
    XMLSchema for DC Terms http://www.dublincore.org/schemas/xmls/qdc/dcterms.xsd. Access: 2016-10-20.
  19. 19.
    arXiv.org Cornell University Library http://www.arxiv.org. Access: 2016-10-20.
  20. 20.
    Federacja Bibliotek Cyfrowych (FBC) http://www.fbc.pionier.net.pl. Access: 2016-10-20.
  21. 21.
    EBU Core Metadata Set (EBUCore). Specification 1.6. Tech 3293. Geneva, June 2015 http://www.tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech/tech3293.pdf. Access: 2016-10-20.
  22. 22.
    SMPTE – Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers http://www.smpte.org. Access: 2016-10-20.
  23. 23.
    International Telecommunication Union http://www.itu.int/en/about/Pages/default.aspx. Access: 2016-10-20.
  24. 24.
    International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) http://www.iptc.org/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  25. 25.
    Metadata Guidance for the Transfer of Permanent Electronic Records. NARA Bulletin 2015-04, September 15, 2015 http://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/bulletins/2015/2015-04.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  26. 26.
    Sustainability of Digital Formats Planning for Library of Congress Collections http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  27. 27.
    Revised Format Guidance for the Transfer of Permanent Electronic Records. NARA Bulletin 2014-04, February 4, 2014, http://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/bulletins/2014/2014-04.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  28. 28.
    List of Metadata Standards. Digital Curation Centre (DCC) http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/metadata-standards/list. Access: 2016-10-20.
  29. 29.
    List of metadata standards in Wikipedia http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metadata_standard. Access: 2016-10-20.
  30. 30.
    Domain Metadata Standards. University of Central Florida Libraries http://www.guides.ucf.edu/metadata/domMetaStandards. Access: 2016-10-24.
  31. 31.
    Agricultural Metadata Element Set (AgMES) – AgMES 1.1 Namespace Specification http://www.aims.fao.org/standards/agmes/namespace-specification. Access: 2016-10-20.
  32. 32.
    AVM – Astronomy Visualization Metadata, International Virtual Observatory Alliance standard used to tag astronomical images http://www.virtualastronomy.org/avm_metadata.php. Access: 2016-10-20.
  33. 33.
    PROV provenance metadata standard PROV[89] designed for interchange of provenance information http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/PROV. Access: 2016-10-20.
  34. 34.
    VRA Core Schemas & Documentation. Official Website http://www.loc.gov/standards/vracore/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  35. 35.
    MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  36. 36.
    TEI: Text Encoding Initiative http://www.tei-c.org/index.xml. Access: 2016-10-20.
  37. 37.
    ONIX standards: ONIX for Books, ONIX for Subscription Products, Licencing Terms and Right Information http://www.editeur.org/8/ONIX/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  38. 38.
    STEP: Standard for the Exchange of Product model data http://www.steptools.com/library/standard/. Access: 2016-10-24. – also ISO 10303: Industrial automation systems and integration – Product data representation and exchange (has many parts).
  39. 39.
    Metadata for Long Term Preservation of Product Data. International Symposium on XML for the Long Haul: Issues in the Long-term Preservation of XML. Proceedings August 2, 2010 http://www.balisage.net/Proceedings/vol6/html/Lubell01/BalisageVol6-Lubell01.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  40. 40.
    MARC to Dublin Core Crosswalk http://www.loc.gov/marc/marc2dc-2001.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  41. 41.
    Dublin Core to MARC Crosswalk http://www.loc.gov/marc/dccross.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  42. 42.
    Mapping of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set to the CIDOC CRM, Martin Doerr http://www.cidoc-crm.org/docs/dc_to_crm_mapping.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  43. 43.
    The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model. International Council of Museums (ICOM) http://www.cidoc-crm.org/official_release_cidoc.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  44. 44.
    Europeana Collections http://www.europeana.eu. Access: 2016-10-20.
  45. 45.
    Provide data in EDM. Europeana Pro http://www.pro.europeana.eu/page/provide-data-edm. Access: 2016-10-20.
  46. 46.
    New railroad map of the state of Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia, available at http://www.loc.gov/item/98688491/; MODS record http://www.lccn.loc.gov/98688491/mods; Dublin Core record http://www.lccn.loc.gov/98688491/dc. Access: 2016-10-20.
  47. 47.
    IPTC Photo Metadata Standard (2014) http://www.iptc.org/standards/photo-metadata/iptc-standard/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  48. 48.
    IPTC Core and Extension Guidelines (July 2010) http://www.iptc.org/standards/photo-metadata/iptc-standard/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
    Museum of History of Photography http://www.mhf.krakow.pl. Access: 2016-10-24.
  51. 51.
    History Meeting House http://www.dsh.waw.pl. Access: 2016-10-24.
  52. 52.
    Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: Exif Version 2.31. Standard of the Camera & Imaging Products Association. CIPA DC-008-Translation-2016. http://www.cipa.jp/std/documents/e/DC-008-Translation-2016-E.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  53. 53.
    Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: Exif Version 2.2. April, 2002. Technical Standardization Committee on AV & IT Storage Systems and Equipment. Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association. http://www.exiv2.org/Exif2-2.PDF. Access: 2016-10-24.
  54. 54.
    Exif vocabulary workspace – RDF Schema http://www.w3.org/2003/12/exif/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  55. 55.
    MIX – NISO Metadata for Images in XML Schema. Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images Standard http://www.loc.gov/standards/mix/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  56. 56.
    American National Information Standards Organization http://www.niso.org/home/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  57. 57.
    TIFF. Revision 6.0. Final June 3, 1992. Adobe Developers Association http://www.partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/tiff/TIFF6.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  58. 58.
    XMP Specification. Adding Intelligence to Media. Adobe Systems Incorporated. September 2005 http://www.partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/xmp/sdk/XMPspecification.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  59. 59.
    Digital Negative (DNG) Specification, Version 1.4.0.0, June 2012 http://www.images.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/products/photoshop/pdfs/dng_spec_1.4.0.0.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  60. 60.
    International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) http://www.iasa-web.org. Access: 2016-10-24.
  61. 61.
    IASA Cataloguing Rules http://www.iasa-web.org/cataloguing-rules. Access: 2016-10-24.
  62. 62.
    IASA Technical Committee, Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects, ed. by Kevin Bradley. Second edition 2009. (= Standards, Recommended Practices and Strategies, IASA-TC 04) http://www.iasa-web.org/tc04/audio-preservation. Access: 2016-10-24.
  63. 63.
    ISO/IEC 13818-3:1995 Information technology “Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information” Part 3: Audio: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=22412. Access: 2016-10-24.
  64. 64.
    EBU Classification Schemes and ontologies: www.ebu.ch/metadata/cs/ and www.ebu.ch/metadata/ontologies/. Access: 2016-10-20.
  65. 65.
    EBU Role Code Classification Scheme http://www.ebu.ch/metadata/cs/ebu_RoleCodeCS.xml. Access: 2016-10-20.
  66. 66.
    FIAF – Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film / International Federation of Film Archives http://www.fiafnet.org. Access: 2016-10-24.
  67. 67.
    IFTA – International Federation of Television Archives[42] http://www.fiatifta.org. Access: 2016-10-24.
  68. 68.
  69. 69.
    The FIAF Moving Image Cataloging Manual. Written by Natasha Fairbairn, Maria Assunta Pimpinelli, Thelma Ross, April 2016 http://www.fiafnet.org/images/tinyUpload/E-Resources/Commission-And-PIP-Resources/CDC-resources/20160920%20Fiaf%20Manual-WEB.pdf. Acess: 2016-10-24.
  70. 70.
    European Standards Committee (CEN) Cinematographic Works Standard (CWS) http://www.filmstandards.org/fsc.index.php/Main_Page. Access: 2016-10-24.
  71. 71.
    DIN EN 15744 Film identification – Minimum set of metadata for cinematographic works http://www.en-standard.eu/din-en-15744-film-identification-minimum-set-of-metadata-for-cinematographic-works/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  72. 72.
    DIN EN 15907 Film identification – Enhancing interoperability of metadata – Element sets and structures http://www.en-standard.eu/din-en-15907-film-identification-enhancing-interoperability-of-metadata-element-sets-and-structures/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  73. 73.
    EN 15744 Film identification Minimum set of metadata for cinematographic works http://www.filmstandards.org/fsc/index.php/EN_15744. Access: 2016-10-24.
  74. 74.
    EN 15907 Film identification – Enhancing interoperability of metadata – Element sets and structures http://www.filmstandards.org/fsc/index.php/EN_15907. Access: 2016-10-24.
  75. 75.
    Cox, M., Mulder, E., Tadic, L., Descriptive Metadata for Television: An End-to-End Introduction. Focal Press 2013.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    TV-Anytime News. Schemas and Classification Schemas http://www.tech.ebu.ch/tvanytime. Access: 2016-10-24.
  77. 77.
    PBCore – Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary http://pbcore.org. Access: 2016-10-24.
  78. 78.
    P/META Metadata Library. EBU Tech 3295. Specification 2.2. Geneva, September 2011 http://www.tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech/tech3295v2_2.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  79. 79.
    SPTME Metadata Registry class 13-14 – managed by Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers (SMPTE) Registration Authority http://www.smpte-ra.org/smpte-metadata-registry. Access: 2016-10-24.
  80. 80.
    EBU Archives Report 2010. Technical Report 006. Geneva, June 2010 http://www.tech.ebu.ch/docs/techreports/tr006.pdf. Access: 2016-10-20.
  81. 81.
    Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) http://www.w3.org/community/odrl/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  82. 82.
    DDEX Standards http://www.ddex.net/ddex-standards. Access: 2016-10-24.
  83. 83.
    METS RightsDeclarationMD Extension Schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/rights/METSRights.xsd. Access: 2016-10-24.
  84. 84.
    Guidelines for using PREMIS with METS for exchange, 2008 http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/guidelines-premismets.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  85. 85.
    XML Formatted Data Unit (XFDU). Structure and Construction Rules. Recommended standard. CCSDS 661.0-B-1. Blue Book, September 2008. ISO equivalent 13527:2010 http://www.public.ccsds.org/Pubs/661x0b1.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  86. 86.
    LOTAR: Long Term Archiving and Retrieval. Metadata for Archival Package Workgroup http://www.lotar-international.org/lotar-workgroups/metadata-for-archival-package.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  87. 87.
    E-ARK. WP4 Archival Records Preservation. Work Packages. http://www.eark-project.com/about/work-packages/9-about/32-wp4intro. Access: 2016-10-24.
  88. 88.
    METS Implementation Registry http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/mets-registry.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  89. 89.
    METS registered profiles http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/mets-registered-profiles.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
    Project CASPAR – Cultural, Artistic and Scientific knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval – an EU Integrated Project http://www.cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/92920_en.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  92. 92.
    Project SAFE – Standard Archive Format for Europe http://www.earth.esa.int/SAFE/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  93. 93.
    Universal Object Format An archiving and exchange format for digital objects. Project kopal Co-operative Development of a Long-Term Digital Information Archiv. By Dipl.-Inform. Tobias Steinke Frankfurt am Main 2006 http://www.kopal.langzeitarchivierung.de/index_objektspezifikation.php.en. Access: 2016-10-24.
  94. 94.
    Caplan, P., Repository to Repository Transfer of Enriched Archival Information Packages. D-Lib Magazine, November/December 2008, vol. 14, number 11/12. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november08/caplan/11caplan.html. Access: 2016-10-20.
  95. 95.
    METS. Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard: Primer and Reference Manual. v. 1.6, 2010, Digital Library Federation http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/mets-schemadocs.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  96. 96.
    METS Example Documents http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/mets-examples.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  97. 97.
    Producer-Archive Interface Methodology Abstract Standard (PAIMAS). Recommendation for Space System Practices. CCSDS 651.0-M-1. Magenta Book. May 2004. ISO equivalent 20652:2006 http://www.public.ccsds.org/Pubs/651x0m1.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  98. 98.
    Producer-Archive Interface Specification (PAIS). Recommended Standard. Blue Book. Issue 1. February 2014. CCSDS 651.1-B-1. ISO equivalent 20104:2015 http://www.public.ccsds.org/Pubs/651x1b1.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  99. 99.
    XML-binary Optimized Packaging, W3C Recommendation, 25 January 2005 http://www.w3.org/TR/xop10/. Access: 2016-10-24.
  100. 100.
    Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preservation_Metadata:_Implementation_Strategies. Access: 2016-10-24.
  101. 101.
    PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata. v. 2.2, July 2012, PREMIS Editorial Committee http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/v2/premis-2-2.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  102. 102.
    PREMIS examples http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/examples.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  103. 103.
    Procedures for requesting a change to the PREMIS Data Dictionary or to the associated XML Schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/revision-process.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  104. 104.
    Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources (v. 1.2) http://www.dnb.de/EN/Standardisierung/LMER/lmer_node.html. Access: 2016-10-24.
  105. 105.
    National Library of New Zealand. Preservation Metadata. Metadata Standards Framework Metadata Implementation Schema. July 2003 http://www.digitalpreservation.natlib.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/nlnz-data-model-final.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  106. 106.
    NC Preservation Metadata for Digital Objects. 2013 EDITION BY LISA GREGORY, KATHLEEN KENNEY, AMY RUDERSDORF http://www.digitalpreservation.ncdcr.gov/pmdo2013final.pdf. Access: 2016-10-24.
  107. 107.
    Provenance Description of Metadata using PROV with PREMIS for Long-term Use of Metadata, Chunqiu Li, Shigeo Sugimoto. DC-2014 in Austin, Texas, 8-11 October 2014 http://www.dcpapers.dublincore.org/pubs/article/view/3709. Access: 2016-10-24.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Control and Computation EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations