Accessibility in Cities: Transport and Urban Form

  • Philipp RodeEmail author
  • Graham Floater
  • Nikolas Thomopoulos
  • James Docherty
  • Peter Schwinger
  • Anjali Mahendra
  • Wanli Fang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)


This chapter reviews the different pathways which cities are following to become more accessible. By identifying the close link between transport and urban form based on global evidence, it highlights the direct and indirect costs of choices made. It then presents the tipping points which can allow to proceed from sprawling urban development and conventional motorised transport to more compact cities characterised by innovative mobility choices shaped around shared and public transport. The examples used are based on cities worldwide to illustrate emerging trends from both developed and developing countries. Therefore, the recommendations are valuable for a range of stakeholders including local and national policy makers, academics and vehicle manufacturers.


Accessibility Compact cities Tipping points Transport Urban density Urban form Sprawl 



Nick Godfrey, Isher Judge Ahluwalia, Dimitri Zenghelis, Ian de Cruz, Daniele Viappiani, Jeremy Oppenheim, Ricky Burdett, Rachel Lewis.


This chapter is an updated and condensed version of the NCE Paper 03 Accessibility in Cities: Transport and Urban Form which was an output of the New Climate Economy project of the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate ( The latest version of that paper is available by LSE Cities ( It builds on the LSE Cities research and publications including the Green Cities and Buildings chapters for UNEP’s Green Economy Report, P. Rode’s research on integrated planning, design and transport and research by the LSE’s Economics of Green Cities programme led by G. Floater, P. Rode and D. Zenghelis.


  1. 1.
    ADB: Changing Course: A new paradigm for Sustainable Urban Transport, Urban Development Series. Asian Development Bank, Philippines (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ADB: Parking Policy in Asian Cities (final consultant’s report). Asian Development Bank, Manila (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ADB: e-trikes—Driving Change, 2014, Accessed 27 May 2014
  4. 4.
    ATM, Observatori de la mobilitat, Area de Barcelona, Autoritat del Transport Metropolita, Barcelona (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aftabuzzaman, M., Currie, G., Sarvi, M.: Evaluating the congestion relief impacts of public transport in monetary terms. J. Public Transp. 13(1), 1–24 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aguiléra, A., Guillot, C., Rallet, A.: Mobile ICTs and physical mobility: review and research agenda. Transp. Res. Part A: Policy Pract. 46(4), 664–672 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Airoldi, M., Chua, J., Gerbert, P., Justus, J., Rilo, R.: Bridging the gap: meeting the infrastructure challenge with public-private partnerships. Boston Consulting Group, Boston (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alpert, P., Shvainshtein, O., Kishcha, P.: AOD trends over megacities based on space monitoring using MODIS and MISR. Am. J. Clim. Change 1, 117 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson, R.: Maximizing the potential for metros to reduce energy consumption and deliver low-carbon transportation in cities. Community of Metros, Delhi (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andrade, K., Woods, L., Kagaya, S.: Cycling within urban areas: the cases of England and Japan, European Transport Conference 2011 (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ang, G., Marchal, V.: Mobilising private investment in sustainable transport: the case of land-based passenger transport infrastructure. OECD Environment Working Papers. OECD Publishing, Paris (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Angel, S.: Making room for a planet of cities. Lincoln Inst. Land Policy (2011) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Angel, S., Sheppard, S., Civco, D.L., Buckley, R., Chabaeva, A., Gitlin, L., Kraley, A., Parent, J., Perlin, M.: The dynamics of global urban expansion, transport and urban development department. The World Bank, UK (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arredondo, J.G.: Invertir para overnos, prioridad inaplazable: Diagnostico de fondos federales para transporte y accesibilidad urbana en Mexico, 2012. Executive Summary. ITDP and British Embassy, Mexico (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arrington, G., Cervero, R.: TCRP Report 128: effects of TOD on housing, parking, and travel. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Banister, D., Hickman, R.: How to design a more sustainable and fairer built environment: transport and communications. IEE Proc. Intell. Transp. Syst. IET 153, 276–291 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bhall, K., Shotten, M., Cohen, A., Brauer, M., Shahraz, S., Burnett, R., Leach-Kemon, K., Freedman, G.,Murray, C.J.L.: Transport for health: the global burden of disease from motorized road transport. Global Road Safety Facility, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and World Bank, Washington DC (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Black, W., van Geenhuizen, M.: ICT innovation and sustainability of the transport sector. Eur. J. Transp. Infrastruct. Res. 6(1), 39–60 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Black, W.R.: Sustainable transportation: a US perspective. J. Transp. Geogr. 4(3), 151–159 (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bongardt, D., Creutzig, F., Hüging, H., Sakamoto, K., Bakker, S., Gota, S., Böhler-Baedeker, S.: Low-carbon land transport: policy handbook, Routledge (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bottles, S.L.: Los Angeles and the automobile: the making of the modern city. University of California Press, Berkeley, California (1987)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bradbury, A., Tomlinson, P., Millington, A.: Understanding the evolution of community severance and its consequences on mobility and social cohesion over the past century. European Transport Conference 2007, Creating a Livable Environment Seminar, Association for European Transport and Contributors (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brueckner, J.K., Mills, E., Kremer, M.: Urban sprawl: lessons from urban economics [with Comments], Brookings-Wharton papers on urban affairs, pp. 65–97 (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bull, F., Armstrong, T., Dixon, T., Ham, S., Neiman, A., Pratt, M.: Physical inactivity. In: Ezzati, M., Lopez, L.A., Rodgers, A., Murray, C.J.L. (eds.) Comparative quantification of health risks. World Health Organization, Geneva (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Burchell, R.W., Anglin, R., Beaton, W.P., Brail, R.K., Danielson, M.N., Foxley, S.J., Listokin, D., Newton, L.Q., Schwartz, A., Walker, C.C.: Impact assessment of the New Jersey interim state development and redevelopment plan. New Jersey Office of State Planning, New Jersey (1992)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Burchell, R.W., Lowenstein, G., Dolphin, W.R., Galley, C.C., Downs, A., Seskin, S., Still, K.G., Moore, T.: Costs of sprawl–2000, Federal Transit Administration (2002)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Burdett, R., Cavusoglu, O., Verdis, S.: City transformations. Urban Age Conference Newspaper, Urban Age Conference, Rio de Janeiro, LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science (2013)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burdett, R., Rode, P.: The electric city. In: Burdett, R., Rode, P. (eds.) Urban age electric city conference. LSE Cities, London School of Economics, London (2012)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    CPCB: Air quality monitoring, emission inventory and source apportionment study for Indian cities, National Summary Report, Central Pollution Control Board (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Campbell, R., Wittgens, M.: The business case for active transportation. Go for Green, Gloucester (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carruthers, J.I., Ulfarsson, G.F.: Urban sprawl and the cost of public services. Environ. Plan. 30(4), 503–522 (2003)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cervero, R.: The transit metropolis: a global inquiry. Island Press, Washington DC (1998)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cervero, R., Duncan, M.: Which reduces vehicle travel more: Jobs-housing balance or retail-housing mixing? J. Am. plann. Assoc. 72(4), 475–490 (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cervero, R., Sarmiento, O.L., Jacoby, E., Gomez, L.F., Neiman, A.: Influences of built environments on walking and cycling: lessons from Bogotá. Int. J. Sustain. Transport. 3(4), 203–226 (2009)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen, C., Gong, H., Paaswell, R.: Role of the built environment on mode choice decisions: additional evidence on the impact of density. Transportation 35(3), 285–299 (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cheshire, P., Hilber, C., Kaplanis, I.: Evaluating the effects of planning policies on the retail sector: or do town centre first policies deliver the goods?, SERC Discussion Paper, London School of Economics, vol. 66 (2011)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chester, M.V., Horvath, A.: Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains. Environ. Res. Lett. 4(2), 1–8 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cortright, J.: New York city’s green dividend, CEOs for cities (2010)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crane, R., Crepeau, R.: Does neighborhood design influence travel? A behavioral analysis of travel diary and GIS data. Transport. Res. Part D: Transport Environ. 3(4), 225–238 (1998)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    D’Onofrio, D.: Understanding the regulatory environment of climate and the impact of community design on greenhouse gas emissions. Atlanta Regional Commission, Atlanta, GA (2014)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dargay, J., Gatley, D., Sommer, M.: Vehicle ownership and income growth, worldwide: 1960–2030. Energy J. 28(4), 143–170 (2007)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Darido, G., Torres-Montoya, M., Shomik, M.: Urban transport and CO2 emissions: some evidence from Chinese cities. World Bank, Washington DC (2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Davila, J.D. (ed.): Urban mobility and poverty: lessons from Medellin and Soacha. UCL & Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia, Development Planning Unit (2013)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Davis, S., Diegel, S., Boundy, R.: Transportation energy data book, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (2011)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    de Graaff, T., Rietveld, P.: Substitution between working at home and out-of-home: the role of ICT and commuting costs. Transport. Res. Part A: Policy Pract. 41(2), 142–160 (2007)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Deloitte: Global automotive consumer study: exploring consumers’ mobility choices and transportation decisions (2014)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Deng, T., Nelson, J.D.: Recent developments in bus rapid transit: a review of the literature. Transport Rev. 31(1), 69–96 (2011)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Denis, K., Urry, J.: After the car. Polity Press, Cambridge (2009)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dimitriou, H.T., Gakenheimer, R.: Urban transport in the developing world: perspectives from the first decade of the new millenium, Edward Elgar Pub, Cheltenham (2009)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dora, C.: Health burden of urban transport: the technical challenge. Sādhanā 32(4), 285–292 (2007)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Druckman, A., Jackson, T.: The carbon footprint of UK households 1990–2004: a socio-economically disaggregated, quasi-multi-regional input–output model. Ecol. Econ. 68(7), 2066–2077 (2009)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dulac, J.: Global land transport infrastructure requirements—estimating road and railway infrastructure capacity and costs to 2050 information paper. OECD/IEA, Paris (2013)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dulal, H.B., Brodnig, G., Onoriose, C.G.: Climate change mitigation in the transport sector through urban planning: a review. Habitat Int. 35(3), 494–500 (2011)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    ECOTEC, Reducing transport emissions through planning, HMSO, London (1993)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ecola, L., Rohr, C., Zmud, J., Kuhnimhof, T., Phleps, P.: The future of driving in developing countries, RAND and IfMo (2014)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Efroymson, D., Rahman, M.: Transportation policy for poverty reduction and social equity. WBB Trust—Roads for people, Dhaka (2005)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ekosgen, Employment in sustainable transport (2010)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Embarq: 166 cities worldwide adopt bus rapid transit—a key tipping point (2013). Accessed 25 April 2014
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
    Ewing, R., Bartholomew, K., Winkelman, S., Walters, J., Anderson, G.: Urban development and climate change. J. Urbanism 1(3), 201–216 (2008)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ezzati, M., Lopez, A., Rodgers, A., Murray, C. (eds.): Comparative quantification of helath risks. World Health Organization, Geneva (2004)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fabian, B.: Overview on transport data and MRV potential in Asia. Transport Sector and NAMAs: assessing data readiness for MRV, clean air initiative for Asian cities center (CAI-Asia Center), Pasig, Philippines (2012)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fallah, B.N., Partridge, M.D., Olfert, M.R.: Urban sprawl and productivity: evidence from US metropolitan areas. Papers Reg. Sci. 90(3), 451–472 (2011)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Floater, G., Rode, P., Friedel, B.: Steering urban growth: governance, policy and finance—paper 2. NCE Cities, LSE cities—London School of Economics and Political Science, London (2014)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Floater, G., Rode, P., Slavcheva, R., Hoornweg, D., Kennedy, C., Robert, A.: Cities and the new climate economy: the transformative role of global urban growth—paper 1. NCE Cities, LSE cities—London School of Economics and Political Science, London (2014)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Floater, G., Rode, P., Zenghelis, D., Montero Carrero, M., Smith, D.A.: Stockholm: green economy leader report, LSE cities—London School of Economics and Political Science, London (2013)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gallagher, R., The rickshaws of Bangladesh (1992)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Garrett-Peltier, H.: Pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure: a national study of employment impacts. Political Economy Research Institute, Amherst, MA (2011)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Geurs, K.T., van Wee, B.: Accessibility evaluation of land-use and transport strategies: review and research directions. J. Transp. Geogr. 12(2), 127–140 (2004)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gilbert, R., Irwin, N., Hollingworth, B., Blais, P.: Sustainable transportation performance indicators, TRB 2003 Annual Meeting CD-ROM, Washington DC (2002)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Glaeser, E.: Triumph of the city: how our greatest invention makes US richer, smarter, greener, healthier and happier, Pan Macmillan (2011)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Glaeser, E.L., Kahn, M.E.: Chapter 56—sprawl and urban growth. In: Henderson, J.V., Jacques-François, T. (eds.) Handbook of regional and urban economics, vol. 4, pp. 2481–2527. Elsevier, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gomez-Ibanez, J.A.: A global view of automobile dependence. J. Am. plann. Assoc. 57(3), 376–379 (1991)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goodwin, P.: Due diligence, traffic forecasts and pensions. Local Transport Today. 594 (2012)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goodwin, P., Hass-Klau, C., Cairns, S.: Evidence on the effects of road capacity reduction on traffic levels. Traffic Eng + Control 39(6), 348–354 (1998)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gordon, D.: Fiscal policies for sustainable transportation: international best practices. Energy Found. Hewlett Found. (2005)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gordon, P., Richardson, H.W.: Gasoline consumption and cities: a reply. J. Am. plann. Assoc. 55(3), 342–346 (1989)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Grebert, J.: Renault contribution to the LSE Call for evidence submission (2014)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Green, J., Naughton, K.: Woes of megacity driving signal dawn of ‘Peak Car’ era (2014). Accessed 9 April 2014
  80. 80.
    Guttikunda, S.K., Mohan, D.: Re-fueling road transport for better air quality in India. Energy Policy 68, 556–561 (2014)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hall, P.: Forces shaping urban Europe. Urban Stud. 30(6), 883–898 (1993)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hansjèurgens, B.: Emissions trading for climate policy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2010)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hao, H., Wang, H., Ouyang, M.: Comparison of policies on vehicle ownership and use between Beijing and Shanghai and their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. Energy Policy 39(2), 1016–1021 (2011)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Heath, G.W., Brownson, R.C., Kruger, J., Miles, R., Powell, K.E., Ramsey, L.T.: The effectiveness of urban design and land use and transport policies and practices to increase physical activity: a systematic review. J. Phys. Activity Health 3(Supplement 1), S55–S76 (2006)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Heck, S., Rogers, M.: Resource revolution: how to capture the biggest business opportunity in a century. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2014)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Henderson, V.: Cities and development. J. Reg. Sci. 50(1), 515–540 (2010)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Herzog, B.: Urban freight in developing cities. GTZ, Eschborn (2010)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hickman, R., Banister, D.: Transport. Routledge, Climate Change and the City (2014)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Holtzclaw, J.W.: Using residential patterns and transit to decrease auto dependence and costs—executive summary. Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco (1994)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Holtzclaw, J.W.: Smart Growth—as seen from the air: convenient neighborhood, skip the car. Air and Waste Management Association’s 93rd Annual Meeting and Exhibition (2000)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    IBI Group: The implications of alternative growth patterns on infrastructure costs. Calgary, Canada (2009)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    IEA World Energy Outlook 2012: OECD/International Energy Agency, Paris (2012)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of climate change—human settlements. Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Potsdam (2014a)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    ITC: Trade statistics for international business development 8703—cars (incl.station wagon). International Trade Center, Geneva (2014)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    ITDP: Transforming urban mobility in Mexico: towards accessible cities less reliant on cars. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, Mexico City (2012)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jaffe, A.B., Lerner, J.: Innovation and its discontents: how our broken patent system is endangering innovation and progress, and what to do about it. Princeton University Press, USA (2011)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Johnson, D., Mackie, P., Laird, J., Shires, J., Ercolani, M.: Buses and economic growth, Institute for Transport Studies. University of Leeds, Leeds (2012)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kalthier, R.: Urban transport and poverty in developing countries: analysis and options for transport policy and planning. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany (2002)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kamakate, F., Gordon, D., Managing motorcycles: Opportunities to reduce pollution and fuel use from two-and-three wheeled vehicle. Int. Council Clean Transport. (ICCT) (2009)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kamargianni, M., Matyas, M., Li, W., Schäfer, A.: Feasibility study for mobility as a service concept in London. UCL Energy Institute and DfT, London (2015)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kenworthy, J., Laube, F.: The millennium cities database for sustainable transport, (CDROM database) international union (association) of public transport, (UITP). Perth, Brussels and Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy (ISTP) (2001)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kersys, A.: Sustainable urban transport system development reducing traffic congestions costs. Eng. Econ. 22(1), 5–13 (2011)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kim, D.: Blues from the neighborhood? Neighborhood characteristics and depression. Epidemiol Rev. 30(1), 101–117 (2008)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Knie, A.: Neue Beweglichkeit. Internationales Verkehrswesen 63 (2011)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kockelman, K.M.: Travel behavior as function of accessibility, land use mixing, and land use balance: evidence from San Francisco Bay Area, Transportation Research Record. J. Transport. Res. Board 1607(1), 116–125 (1997)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kutzbach, M.: Megacities and megatraffic. Access 37, 31–35 (2010)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    LSE Cities: Transport related carbon emissions in Atlanta and Barcelona: updated comparative calculations. Working paper, LSE Cities, London (2014)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Laconte, P.: Urban and transport management—international trends and practices. International Symposium “Sustainable Urban Transport and City”. Tongji University and Nagoya University, Shanghai (2005)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Larsen, J.: Bike-sharing programs hit the streets in over 500 cities worldwide (2013). Accessed 11 May 2014
  110. 110.
    Lecocq, F., Shalizi, Z.: The economics of targeted mitigation in infrastructure. Clim. Policy 14(2), 187–208 (2014)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Li, F., Cao, B.: Path and potential of carbon emissions reduction caused by urban energy use: a case study of Shanghai. Urban China Project Report (2012)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Limtanakool, N., Dijst, M., Schwanen, T.: The influence of socioeconomic characteristics, land use and travel time considerations on mode choice for medium-and longer-distance trips. J. Transp. Geogr. 14(5), 327–341 (2006)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lin, J.-J., Yang, A.-T.: Structural analysis of how urban form impacts travel demand: evidence from Taipei. Urban Stud. 46(9), 1951–1967 (2009)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Litman, T.: Transportation cost and benefit analysis. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, vol. 1–19 (2009).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Litman, T.: Evaluating public transportation health benefits. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria (2012)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Litman, T.: Evaluating public transit benefits and costs. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, vol. 65 (2014a)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Litman, T.: Smart growth savings. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, Canada (2014)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Liu, Y., Chen, T., Song, X.: Relationship between urban form and urban CO2 efficiency with policies and recommendations (2012)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lotfi, S., Koohsari, M.J.: Proximity to neighborhood public open space across different socio-economic status areas in metropolitan Tehran. Environ. Justice 4(3), 179–184 (2011)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    MGI: Preparing for China’s urban billion. McKinsey Global Institute (2009)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mair, C., Roux, A.D., Galea, S.: Are neighbourhood characteristics associated with depressive symptoms? A review of evidence. J Epidemiol Community Health 62(11), 940–946 (2008)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Manville, M., Shoup, D.: People, parking and cities. ACCESS Mag (2004)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    McCubbin, D.R., Delucchi, M.A.: The health costs of motor-vehicle-related air pollution. J. Transport Econ. Policy 33(3), 253–286 (1999)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Medley, A.J., Wong, C.-M., Thach, T.Q., Ma, S., Lam, T.-H., Anderson, H.R.: Cardiorespiratory and all-cause mortality after restrictions on sulphur content of fuel in Hong Kong: an intervention study. Lancet 360(9346), 1646–1652 (2002)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Menckhoff, G.: Latin American experience with bus rapid transit. Annual meeting of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, Melbourne (2005)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Metz, D.: Demographic determinants of daily travel demand. Transp. Policy 21, 6 (2012)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Metz, D.: Peak car and beyond: the fourth era of travel. Transport Rev. 33(3), 255–270 (2013)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Morichi, S., Raj Acharya, S.: Transport development in Asian Megacities. Springer, Berlin (2013)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mu, Q., Zhang, S.-q.: An evaluation of the economic loss due to the heavy haze during January 2013 in China, China Environ. Sci. 33(11) (2013)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Müller, B., Siedentop, S.: Growth and shrinkage in Germany-trends, perspectives and challenges for spatial planning and development. German J. Urban Stud. 44(1), 14–32 (2004)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Müller, D.B., Liu, G., Løvik, A.N., Modaresi, R., Pauliuk, S., Steinhoff, F.S., Brattebø, H.: Carbon Emissions from Infrastructure Development. Nat. Clim. Change (2013).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Nelson, A.C., Moore, T.: Assessing urban growth management: the case of Portland, Oregon, the USA’s largest urban growth boundary. Land Use Policy 10(4), 293–302 (1993)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Newcomer, E.: Uber raises funding at $62.5 billion valuation, Bloomberg. December 3, 2015. Accessed 6 June 2014
  134. 134.
    Newman, P., Kenworthy, J.R.: The land use—transport connection: an overview. Land Use Policy 13(1), 1–22 (1996)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    OECD: Medium-run capacity adjustment in the automobile industry. OECD Economics Department Policy Notes (2013)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    OECD: The cost of air pollution: Health impacts of road transport (2014)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Odgaard, T., Kelly, C., Laird, J.: Current practice in project appraisal in Europe, HEATCO research project (Harmonised European Approaches for Transport Costing and Project Assessment) (2005)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    O’Connor, K.M., Sauer, S.J.: Recognizing social capital in social networks: experimental results. Johnson School Research Paper Series, vol. 18–06 (2006)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pelletier, M.-P., Trépanier, M., Morency, C.: Smart card data in public transit: a literature review. Transp. Res. Part C 19, 557–568 (2011)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Perego, A., Perotti, S., Mangiaracina, R.: ICT for logistics and freight transportation: a literature review and research agenda. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logistics Manage. 41(5), 457–483 (2011)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Pickrell, D.: Transportation and land use. Essays in transportation economics and policy. In: Gomez-Ibanez, J., Tye, W. B., Winston, W. (eds.) A handbook in honor of John R. Meyer. Brookings Institution Press, vol. 403–435, Wasahington DC (1999)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pourbaix, J.: Towards a smart future for cities, Journeys—May 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Prud’homme, R., Lee, C.-W.: Size, sprawl, speed and the efficiency of cities. Urban Stud. 36(11), 1849–1858 (1999)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Putnam, R.D., Leonardi, R., Nanetti, R.: Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy, Princeton University Press (1994)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rayle, L., Pai, M.: Scenarios for future urbanization: carbon dioxide emissions from passenger travel in three Indian cities. Transport. Res. Record: J. Transport. Res. Board 2193(1), 124–131 (2010)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Reno, A., Weisbrod, G.: Economic impact of public transportation investment, transit cooperative research program (2009)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rietveld, P., Vickerman, R.: Transport in regional science: the “death of distance” is premature. Papers Reg. Sci. 83, 229–248 (2004)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rode, P.: The politics and planning of urban compaction: the case of the London metropolitan region. In: Ruby, A., Ruby, I., Janson, N. (eds.) The economy of sustainable construction. Ruby Press, Berlin (2014)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rode, P., Burdett, R.: Cities: investing in energy and resource efficiency, United Nations Environment Programme (2011)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rode, P., Floater, G., Kandt, J., Baker, K., Carrero, M.M., Heeckt, C., Smith, D., Delfs, M.: Going green: how cities are leading the next economy. LSE Cities, ICLEI and Global Green Growth Institute, London (2013)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rode, P., Gipp, C.: Dynamische Räume: Die Nutzungsflexibilisierung urbaner Mobilitaetsraeume am Beispiel der Berliner Innenstadt, Technical University Berlin (2001)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rode, P., Kandt, J., Baker, K.: Transport equity in Sao Paulo, Istanbul and Mumbai, LSE Cities Working Paper, LSE Cities, London (2013)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    SGA: Recent lessons from the stimulus: transportation funding and job creation, smart growth America (2011)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    STF: Shrink your travel footprint (2014). Accessed 12 June 2014
  155. 155.
    Salon, D., Aligula, E.M.: Urban travel in Nairobi, Kenya: analysis, insights, and opportunities. J. Transp. Geogr. 22, 65–76 (2012)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Salat, S., Bourdic, L.: Urban complexity, efficiency and resilience. In: Morvaj, Z. (eds.) Energy efficiency—A Bridge to Low Carbon Economy (2013).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Schubert, J., Wolbring, T., Gill, B.: Settlement structures and carbon emissions in Germany: the effects of social and physical concentration on carbon emissions in rural and urban residential areas. Environ. Policy Governance 23(1), 13–29 (2013)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Scotchmer, S.: Innovation and incentives, MIT press (2004)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sellers, J., Han, S.S., Huang, J., Lu, X.X., Marcotullio, P., Ramachandra, T.V.: Peri-urban development and environmental sustainability: examples from China and India, Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (2009)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Smith, K.R., Jerrett, M., Anderson, H.R., Burnett, R.T., Stone, V., Derwent, R., Atkinson, R.W., Cohen, A., Shonkoff, S.B., Krewski, D.: Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants. Lancet 374(9707), 2091–2103 (2010)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Smith, W.S.: Mass transport for high-rise high-density living. J. Transport. Eng. 110(6), 521–535 (1984)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sperling, D., Nichols, M.: California’s pioneering transportation strategy. Issues Sci. Technol. 28(2), 59–66 (2012)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Spieser, K., Treleaven, K.B., Zhang, R., Frazzoli, E., Morton, D., Pavone, M.: Toward a systematic approach to the design and evaluation of automated mobility-on-demand systems: a case study in Singapore (2014)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Staniford, S.: Chinese transportation growth (2010)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    TfL, Annual: Report and statement of accounts 2012/13. Transport for London, London (2013)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Thomopoulos, N., Givoni, M., Rietveld, P. (eds.): ICT for transport: opportunities and threats, NECTAR Series on Transportation and Communications Networks Research. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2015)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Thomopoulos, N., Givoni, M.: The autonomous car—a blessing or a curse for the future of low carbon mobility? An exploration of likely vs. desirable outcomes. Eur. J. Futures Res. 3(14) (2015)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Thomopoulos, N., Grant-Muller, S.: Incorporating equity as part of the wider impacts in transport infrastructure assessment: an application of the SUMINI approach. Transportation 40(2), 315–345 (2013)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Thomopoulos, N., Grant-Muller, S., Tight, M.: Incorporating equity considerations in transport infrastructure evaluation: current practice and a proposed methodology. Eval Program Plann. 32(4), 351–359 (2009)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Thompson, D.: Suburban sprawl: exposing hidden costs, identifying innovations. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Sustainable Prosperity (2013)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Todd, L.: Analysis of public policies that unintentionally encourage and subsidize urban sprawl. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Supporting paper commissioned by LSE Cities at the London School of Economics and Political Science, on behalf of the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate for the New Climate Economy Cities Program (2015)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Turner, P., Pourbaix, J.: UITP call for evidence response—actions to reduce emissions, urban innovation and smart technologies, UITP (2014)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    UK Ministry of Transport: The Buchanan Report—traffic in towns: a study of the long term problems of traffic in urban areas. H. M, Stationery Off (1963)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Habitat, U.N.: Part three: environmental harmony. Earthscan, London (2008)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    UN Habitat: State of the world’s cities 2010/2011: bridging the urban divide (2010)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    UNCSD: Sustainable, Low carbon transport in emerging and developing economies, Rio 2012 Issues Briefs, Rio + 20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, 13 (2012)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    UNEP: Towards a green economy: pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication, UNEP (2011)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    UTF: Towards an urban renaissance: the report of the urban task force chaired by Lord Rogers of Riverside; Executive Summary, HMSO, London (1999)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Valeur, H.: The horrendous costs of motorized transportation in (Indian) cities, Alog (2013)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Van Audenhove, F.-J., Korniichuk, O., Dauby, L., Pourbaix, J.: The future of urban mobility 2.0, Arthur D. Little and UITP (2014)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    WBCSD: The cement sustainability initiative: recycling concrete—executive summary, WBCSD-CSI (2009)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    WBCSD: About the cement industry (2012). Accessed 27 May 2014
  183. 183.
    WHO: Mortality: chronic respiratory diseases, deaths per 100,000—data by country (2008). Accessed 6 June 2014
  184. 184.
    WHO: Physical activity, February 2014., Factsheet. Accessed 12 June 2014
  185. 185.
    WHO: Unlocking new opportunities: jobs in green and healthy transport, World Health Organisation (2014)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wagner, A.: GIZ international fuel prices 2012/2013—data preview April 2013. Eschborn, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) (2013)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    West, S.E.: Taxes versus standards, 21st century economics: a reference handbook, vol. 1, p. 247 (2010)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    World Bank: Guangzhou green trucks pilot project: technology pilot report, World Bank and Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Centre (2010)Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    World Bank: Urbanization beyond municipal boundaries: nurturing metropolitan economies and connecting peri-urban areas in India, World Bank (2013)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Wright, L.: Bus rapid transit, sustainable transport: a sourcebook for policy-makers in developing cities. Eschborn, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) (2002)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wright, L., Fulton, L.: Climate change mitigation and transport in developing nations. Transport Rev. 25(6), 691–717 (2005)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wu, J.: Environmental amenities, urban sprawl, and community characteristics. J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 52(2), 527–547 (2006)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Yen, I.H., Michael, Y.L., Perdue, L.: Neighborhood environment in studies of health of older adults: a systematic review. Am. J. Prev. Med. 37(5), 455–463 (2009)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Zhang, J., Mauzerall, D.L., Zhu, T., Liang, S., Ezzati, M., Remais, J.V.: Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water. Lancet 375(9720), 1110–1119 (2010)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Zhang, M.: The role of land use in travel mode choice: evidence from Boston and Hong Kong. J. Am. plann. Assoc. 70(3), 344–360 (2004)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Zhang, M.: Travel choice with no alternative can land use reduce automobile dependence? J. Plann. Educ. Res. 25(3), 311–326 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp Rode
    • 1
    Email author
  • Graham Floater
    • 1
  • Nikolas Thomopoulos
    • 2
  • James Docherty
    • 1
  • Peter Schwinger
    • 1
  • Anjali Mahendra
    • 3
  • Wanli Fang
    • 4
  1. 1.LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK
  2. 2.Systems Management and StrategyUniversity of Greenwiche, Old Royal Naval CollegeLondonUK
  3. 3.World Resources InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.World BankWashington D.CUSA

Personalised recommendations