Advertisement

Steady-State Analysis of Unbalanced Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation

Chapter

Abstract

Thrust for clean energy has led to increasing penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) generation in distribution networks . Multiple factors affecting the steady-state operations of unbalanced distribution networks in the presence of PV generation necessitates detailed modelling of all network components in order to assess the impact of Distributed Generation (DGs) . This chapter provides an overview of phase-domain modelling of distribution networks, need and application of sequential time simulations (STS) in determining feeder response characteristics in the presence of PVDGs and factors affecting their response characteristics. Parameters such as hosting capacity of feeder, voltage profile , active and reactive power demand , reverse power flow , power factor and performance of voltage regulating equipment are discussed. Necessity and role of energy storage systems is also discussed for the distribution networks with PVDGs. Several case studies are presented to elaborate the effect of PVDGs on steady-state operations of unbalanced distribution networks.

Keywords

Reactive Power Power Flow Battery Energy Storage System Node Voltage Substation Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Nomenclature

Transformer and Voltage Regulator Modelling

\({\text{CT}}_{\text{P}} ,{\text{CT}}_{\text{S}}\)

Respectively, primary and secondary side current rating (A) of Current Transformer (CT);

\(I_{An} ,I_{Bn} ,I_{Cn}\)

Phase currents (A) on primary side of Voltage Regulator (VR) in phase a, b and c, respectively;

\(I_{an} ,I_{bn} ,I_{cn}\)

Phase currents (A) on secondary side of VR in phase a, b and c, respectively;

\(N_{1} ,N_{2}\)

Number of turns in shunt and series winding, respectively, in VR;

\(N_{\text{PT}}\)

Turns ratio of potential transformer;

\(R_{{{\text{comp-}}\varOmega }} ,X_{{{\text{comp-}}\varOmega }}\)

Resistance and reactance (Ω) obtained for VR setting;

\(R_{{{\text{line-}}\varOmega }} ,X_{{{\text{line-}}\varOmega }}\)

Resistance and reactance (Ω) for line to be compensated;

\(R_{\text{pu}} ,X_{\text{pu}}\)

Resistance and reactance in per unit for VR setting;

\(R_{\text{pu}}^{\prime} ,X_{\text{pu}}^{\prime}\)

Resistance and reactance (V) for VR setting;

\(V_{An} ,V_{Bn} ,V_{Cn}\)

Phase to neutral voltage (V) on primary side of VR for phase a, b and c, respectively;

\(V_{\text{L}} ,I_{\text{L}}\)

Load side voltage (V) and current (A), respectively, in VR;

\(V_{\text{LN}}\).

Line to neutral voltage (V) in VR;

\(V_{an} ,V_{bn} ,V_{cn}\)

Phase to neutral voltage (V) on secondary side of VR for phase a, b and c, respectively;

\(a_{\text{r}} ,a_{\text{R}}\)

Voltage regulator ratio and effective voltage regulator ratio, respectively;

\(a_{ra} ,a_{rb} ,a_{rc}\)

VR ratio in phase a, b and c, respectively.

PV Array Modelling

\(\Delta_{\text{T}}\)

Difference in module temperature with respect to Standard Temperature Conditions (STC) in Kelvin

\(G_{n}\)

Global irradiance under STC (W/m2)

\(I_{0, n}\)

Diode saturation current (A) under STC

\(I_{0}\)

Diode saturation current (A) under normal temperature

\(I_{\text{mp}}\)

Module current (A) when PV module operates at MPP

\(I_{\text{pv}}\)

PV Module current (A) due to photovoltaic effect

\(I_{{{\text{sc}},n}}\)

PV module short circuit current (A) under STC

\(K_{\text{I}}\)

Coefficient of temperature for current in %/K

\(K_{\text{V}}\)

Coefficient of temperature for voltage in %/K

\(N_{\text{s}}\)

Number of PV cells connected in series in a PV module

\(P_{{{ \hbox{max} },{\text{e}}}}\)

Maximum power (W) produced by module under STC

\({\text{PV}}_{\text{area}}\)

Gross area of photovoltaic modules receiving solar insolation, m2

\(R_{\text{p}}\)

Equivalent parallel resistance in Ω

\(R_{\text{s}}\)

Equivalent series resistance in Ω

\(V_{\text{mp}}\)

PV Module voltage (V) operating at maximum power point

\(V_{{{\text{oc}},n}}\)

PV module open circuit voltage (V) under STC

\(V_{\text{t}}\)

Thermal voltage (V) of PV module at temperature \(T\)

G

Global irradiance in W/m2

\(I\)

PV Module current (A) at given temperature and irradiance

\(T\)

Temperature of PN junction in Kelvin

\(V\)

PV module voltage (V) at given temperature and irradiance

a, k

Diode ideality factor, Boltzmann’s constant

\(q\)

Electron charge

\(\eta\)

Overall gross efficiency of photovoltaic plant

References

  1. 1.
    Kersting WH (2012) Distribution system modeling and analysis, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    DoE and PNNL, “GridLAB-D.” 2014Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Faiman D (2008) Assessing the outdoor operating temperature of photovoltaic modules. Prog Photovolt Res Appl 16:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Villalva MG, Gazoli JR, Filho ER (2009) Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. IEEE Trans Power Electron 24(5):1198–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Walling RA, Saint R, Dugan RC, Burke J, Kojovic LA (2008) Summary of distributed resources impact on power delivery systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 23(3):1636–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Joshi KA, Pindoriya NM (2012) Impact investigation of rooftop solar PV system: a case study in India. In: 3rd IEEE PES international conference and exhibition on innovative smart grid technologies (ISGT Europe), pp 1–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arritt RF, Dugan RC (2011) Distribution system analysis and the future smart grid. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 47(6):2343–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arritt RF, Dugan RC (2014) Value of sequential-time simulations in distribution planning. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 50(6):4216–4220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dugan RC (2012) The value of quasi-static time series simulation. In: Distribution system modeling workshopGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ortmeyer T, Dugan R, Crudele D, Key T, Barker P (2008) Renewable systems interconnection study: utility models, analysis, and simulation tools. Sandia National Laboratory [Online, Accessed: 20 Sep 2015]Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Broderick RJ, Quiroz JE, Reno MJ, Ellis A, Smith J, Dugan R (2013) Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation. Sandia National Laboratory [Online, Accessed: 18 Sep 2015]Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thomson M, Infield DG (2007) Network power-flow analysis for a high penetration of distributed generation. IEEE Trans Power Syst 22(3):1157–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boehme T, Wallace AR, Harrison GP (2007) Applying time series to power flow analysis in networks with high wind penetration. IEEE Trans Power Syst 22(3):951–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boehme T, Harrison GP, Wallace AR (2010) Assessment of distribution network limits for non-firm connection of renewable generation. IET Renew Power Gener 4(1):64–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vittal E, O’Malley M, Keane A (2010) A steady-state voltage stability analysis of power systems with high penetrations of wind. In: IEEE PES general meeting, 2010, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Joshi KA, Pindoriya NM (2013) Risk assessment of unintentional islanding in a spot network with roof-top photovoltaic system—a case study in India. In: 2013 IEEE innovative smart grid technologies-Asia (ISGT Asia), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Inc.—Annual Load Profiles (2014) [Online]. Available: http://www.ercot.com/mktinfo/loadprofile
  18. 18.
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory—Data Resource (2014) [Online]. Available: http://www.nrel.gov/gis/data.html. Accessed: 20 Apr 2004
  19. 19.
    Smith J, Rylander M, Rogers L, Dugan R (2015) It’s all in the plans: maximizing the benefits and minimizing the impacts of DERs in an integrated grid. IEEE Power Energy Mag 13(2):20–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoke A, Butler R, Hambrick J, Kroposki B (2013) Steady-state analysis of maximum photovoltaic penetration levels on typical distribution feeders. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4(2):350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stetz T, Marten F, Braun M (2013) Improved low voltage grid-integration of photovoltaic systems in Germany. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4(2):534–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Agalgaonkar YP, Pal BC, Jabr RA (2014) Distribution voltage control considering the impact of PV generation on tap changers and autonomous regulators. IEEE Trans Power Syst 29(1):182–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kersting WH (1991) Radial distribution test feeders. IEEE Trans Power Syst 6(3):975–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    “Torrent Power Ltd., Gujarat, India.” Ahmedabad, 2014Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    American National Standard for Electric Power Systems and Equipment—Voltage Ratings (60 Hertz) ANSI C84.1-2011, 2011Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Joshi KA, Pindoriya NM (2014) Reactive resource reallocation in DG integrated secondary distribution networks with time-series distribution power flow. In: 2014 IEEE international conference on power electronics, drives and energy systems (PEDES), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roberts BP, Sandberg C (2011) The role of energy storage in development of smart grids. Proc IEEE 99(6):1139–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rowe M, Yunusov T, Haben S, Singleton C, Holderbaum W, Potter B (2014) A peak reduction scheduling algorithm for storage devices on the low voltage network. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5(4):2115–2124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jung KH, Kim H, Rho D (1996) Determination of the installation site and optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system for load leveling. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 11(1):162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang P, Liang DH, Yi J, Lyons PF, Davison PJ, Taylor PC (2014) Integrating electrical energy storage into coordinated voltage control schemes for distribution networks. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 5(2):1018–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yang Y, Li H, Aichhorn A, Zheng J, Greenleaf M (2014) Sizing strategy of distributed battery storage system with high penetration of photovoltaic for voltage regulation and peak load shaving. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5(2):982–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chua KH, Lim YS, Taylor P, Morris S, Wong J (2012) Energy storage system for mitigating voltage unbalance on low-voltage networks with photovoltaic systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 27(4):1783–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alam MJE, Muttaqi KM, Sutanto D (2013) Mitigation of rooftop solar PV impacts and evening peak support by managing available capacity of distributed energy storage systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 28(4):3874–3884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tant J, Geth F, Six D, Tant P, Driesen J (2013) Multiobjective battery storage to improve PV integration in residential distribution grids. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4(1):182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Joshi KA, Pindoriya NM (2015) Day-ahead dispatch of battery energy storage system for peak load shaving and load leveling in low voltage unbalance distribution networks. In: IEEE PES general meeting, pp 1–5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IIT GandhinagarGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations