## Abstract

This chapter introduces the reader to the *What I Find Important (in my mathematics learning)* study (WIFI), conducted by a consortium of 21 research teams from 18 economies. It uses the same questionnaire to assess what students value in their respective mathematics education experiences. Two case economies, Hong Kong and Japan, provide the context for the discussion. This provides a reference point for analyzing four significant themes: the affordance to identify and define cultures and subcultures, the documenting and comparing of espoused and enacted valuing, the triangulation of survey responses, and the culturally situated labelling of values and valuing.

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## Appendices

### Appendix 1: Rotated component matrix for Hong Kong data

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

| |||||||||

Q56 Knowing the steps of the solution | 0.748 | ||||||||

Q54 Understanding concepts / processes | 0.708 | ||||||||

Q55 Shortcuts to solving a problem | 0.703 | ||||||||

Q51 Learning through mistakes | 0.655 | ||||||||

Q58 Knowing which formula to use | 0.604 | ||||||||

Q63 Understanding why my solution is incorrect or correct | 0.593 | ||||||||

Q50 Getting the right answer | 0.588 | ||||||||

Q59 Knowing the theoretical aspects of mathematics | 0.564 | ||||||||

Q49 Examples to help me understand | 0.546 | ||||||||

Q2 Problem-solving | 0.530 | ||||||||

Q47 Using diagrams to understand maths | 0.491 | ||||||||

Q53 Teacher use of keywords | 0.490 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q17 Stories about mathematics | 0.760 | ||||||||

Q61 Stories about mathematicians | 0.754 | ||||||||

Q18 Stories about recent developments in mathematics | 0.696 | ||||||||

Q34 Outdoor mathematics activities | 0.666 | ||||||||

Q25 Mathematics games | 0.559 | ||||||||

Q52 Hands-on activities | 0.555 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q37 Doing a lot of mathematics work | 0.849 | ||||||||

Q36 Practicing with lots of questions | 0.822 | ||||||||

Q57 Mathematics homework | 0.732 | ||||||||

Q62 Completing mathematics work | 0.690 | ||||||||

Q43 Mathematics tests examinations | 0.519 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q30 Alternative solutions | 0.687 | ||||||||

Q21 Students posing maths problems | 0.601 | ||||||||

Q31 Verifying theorems hypotheses | 0.593 | ||||||||

Q29 Making up my own maths questions | 0.585 | ||||||||

Q19 Explaining my solutions to the class | 0.487 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q28 Knowing the times tables | 0.629 | ||||||||

Q14 Memorizing facts | 0.570 | ||||||||

Q38 Given a formula to use | 0.548 | ||||||||

Q13 Practicing how to use maths formulae | 0.517 | ||||||||

Q32 Using mathematical words | 0.513 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q22 Using the calculator to check the answer | 0.802 | ||||||||

Q23 Learning maths with the computer | 0.760 | ||||||||

Q4 Using the calculator to calculate | 0.724 | ||||||||

Q24 Learning maths with the internet | 0.692 | ||||||||

Q27 Being lucky at getting the correct answer | 0.560 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q45 Feedback from my friends | 0.666 | ||||||||

Q44 Feedback from my teacher | 0.646 | ||||||||

Q46 Me asking questions | 0.485 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q10 Relating mathematics to other subjects in school | 0.636 | ||||||||

Q12 Connecting maths to real life | 0.553 | ||||||||

Q11 Appreciating the beauty of mathematics | 0.549 | ||||||||

Q8 Learning the proofs | 0.485 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

Q5 Explaining by the teacher | 0.550 | ||||||||

Q7 Whole-class discussions | 0.493 | ||||||||

Q6 Working step by step | 0.485 |

### Appendix 2: Rotated component matrix for Japan data

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

| |||||||||

61. Stories about mathematicians | 0.760 | ||||||||

17. Stories about mathematics | 0.755 | ||||||||

18. Stories about recent developments in mathematics | 0.732 | ||||||||

11. Appreciating the beauty of mathematics | 0.682 | ||||||||

60. Mystery of mathematics | 0.649 | ||||||||

39. Looking out for math in real life | 0.620 | ||||||||

40. Explaining where the rules/formulae came from | 0.619 | ||||||||

34. Outdoor mathematics activities | 0.568 | ||||||||

10. Relating mathematics to other subjects in school | 0.529 | ||||||||

12. Connecting math to real life | 0.517 | ||||||||

21. Students posing math problems | 0.481 | ||||||||

20. Mathematics puzzles | 0.481 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

30. Alternative solutions | 0.691 | ||||||||

15. Looking for different ways to find the answer | 0.665 | ||||||||

16. Looking for different possible answers | 0.655 | ||||||||

31. Verifying theorems/hypotheses | 0.546 | ||||||||

37. Doing a lot of mathematics work | 0.515 | ||||||||

63. Understanding why my solution is incorrect or correct | 0.486 | ||||||||

36. Practicing with lots of questions | 0.460 | ||||||||

8. Learning the proofs | 0.460 | ||||||||

29. Making up my own math questions | 0.455 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

14. Memorizing facts (e.g., Area of a rectangle = length × breadth) | 0.712 | ||||||||

13. Practicing how to use math formulae | 0.639 | ||||||||

2. Problem-solving | 0.526 | ||||||||

28. Knowing the times tables | 0.522 | ||||||||

43. Mathematics tests/examinations | 0.497 | ||||||||

32. Using mathematical words | 0.470 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

44. Feedback from my teacher | 0.645 | ||||||||

41. Teacher helping me individually | 0.601 | ||||||||

45. Feedback from my friends | 0.553 | ||||||||

46. Me asking questions | 0.473 | ||||||||

35. Teacher asking us questions | 0.472 | ||||||||

5. Explaining by the teacher | 0.458 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

55. Shortcuts to solving a problem | 0.633 | ||||||||

56. Knowing the steps of the solution | 0.597 | ||||||||

64. Remembering the work we have done | 0.471 | ||||||||

54. Understanding concepts/processes | 0.451 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

23. Learning math with the computer | 0.854 | ||||||||

24. Learning math with the internet | 0.844 | ||||||||

22. Using the calculator to check the answer | 0.637 | ||||||||

25. Mathematics games | 0.578 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

7. Whole-class discussions | 0.693 | ||||||||

3. Small-group discussions | 0.660 | ||||||||

9. Mathematics debates | 0.493 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

48. Using concrete materials to understand | 0.474 | ||||||||

| |||||||||

27. Being lucky at getting the correct answer | 0.565 |

### Appendix 3: Correlations between all pairs of factor vectors in the Hong Kong and Japanese data

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Seah, W.T., Baba, T., Zhang, Q. (2017). The WIFI Study: Students’ Valuing of Mathematics Learning in Hong Kong and Japan. In: Son, JW., Watanabe, T., Lo, JJ. (eds) What Matters? Research Trends in International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Education. Research in Mathematics Education. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51187-0_18

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