Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of the 14YWT Nanostructured Ferritic Alloy NFA-1

  • S. Pal
  • M. E. Alam
  • G. R. OdetteEmail author
  • S. A. Maloy
  • D. T. Hoelzer
  • J. J. Lewandowski
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


The 14YWT FCRD NFA-1 is a nanostructured variant of ODS ferritic steels. It is processed by ball milling FeO and argon atomized Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti-0.2Y (wt%) powders, followed by hot extrusion, annealing and cross-rolling to produce ≈10 mm thick plates. The plate contains a bimodal distribution of highly textured, pancake-shaped, generally submicron, grains. NFA-1 also contains a large population of microcracks lying in planes normal to the plate thickness direction. The microcracks form on {001} planes and propagate in \( \left\langle {110} \right\rangle \) directions along low angle subgrain boundaries formed during high-temperature deformation. Tensile tests in directions parallel to the extrusion (L) or cross-rolling (T) manifest high strength and good ductility over a wide range of temperatures. In contrast, loading in the short plate thickness (S) direction, perpendicular to the microcrack faces, manifests a much lower strength, and almost zero ductility, with flat, faceted cleavage fracture surfaces up to ≈100 °C. However, tensile ductility in the S orientation increases at higher temperatures above with a brittle-to-ductile transition (BDT). The L, T and S properties are reasonably similar (isotropic) above ≈200 °C. At lower temperatures, deformation in both tensile and fracture toughness tests is accompanied by extensive delamination due to propagation of the microcracks. Delamination has relatively modest effects on tensile properties, but actually improves fracture toughness, either by relaxing triaxial stress in thin delaminated ligaments near the tip, or crack deflection, depending on the specimen orientation. Elastic-plastic toughness (KJc) of NFA-1 undergoes a cleavage BDT at ≈−175 °C, with stable crack tearing initiation just beyond general yielding at higher temperatures.


ODS steel Deformation processing Texture Microcracks Mechanical properties Delamination toughening Orientation-dependent properties 



The Materials Performance and Reliability Group (MR&PG) at the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) carried out the research reported here. The UCSB authors gratefully acknowledge the support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (DE-FG03-94ER54275), the Office of Nuclear Energy though the Idaho National Laboratory Nuclear Energy University Research Program (IDNL Award #00119430 8-442520-59048) and the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program through a subcontract from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL8-442550-59434). The U.S. National Science Foundation supported California Nanoscience Institute provided facilities critical the success of this research. The. authors also thank MR&PG members Takuya Yamamoto, Yuan Wu, David Gragg and Kirk Fields for their important contributions.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Pal
    • 1
  • M. E. Alam
    • 1
  • G. R. Odette
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. A. Maloy
    • 2
  • D. T. Hoelzer
    • 3
  • J. J. Lewandowski
    • 4
  1. 1.Materials DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  3. 3.Materials Science and Technology DepartmentOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  4. 4.Materials Science and Engineering DepartmentCase Western Reserve UniversityOhioUSA

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