Advertisement

Theories of Punk and Subculture

Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in the History of Subcultures and Popular Music book series (PSHSPM)

Abstract

This chapter sets out the theoretical framework for the book. It traces the emergence of the fields of subcultural studies and its evolution over the last few decades. It focuses in particular on the related developments in academic understandings of punk. It places these two debates within wider sociological developments. It goes on to argue for a need to ‘reground’ theory by recognising the embedded, connected, whole lives of those engaging in ‘subcultural’ activities and the intersubjective creation of meaning in their practices.  

Keywords

Subculture Punk Connectedness Whole lives Intersubjectivity 

References

  1. Anderson, B. [1983] 2006. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  2. Appadurai, A. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bauman, Z. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, U. 1994. The Reinvention of Politics: Towards a Theory of Reflexive Modernization. In Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, ed. U. Beck, A. Giddens, and S. Lash, 1–55. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, U., and E. Beck-Gernsheim. 2002. Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and Its Social and Political Consequences. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, A. 1999. Subcultures or Neo-Tribes? Rethinking the Relationship Between Youth, Style and Musical Taste. Sociology 33 (3): 599–617.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, A. 2005. In Defence of Neo-tribes: A Response to Blackman and Hesmondhalgh. Journal of Youth Studies 8 (2): 255–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett, A. 2006. Punk’s Not Dead: The Continuing Significance of Punk Rock for an Older Generation of Fans. Sociology 40 (2): 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, A. 2011. The Post-subcultural Turn: Some Reflections 10 years on. Journal of Youth Studies 14 (5): 493–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett, A. 2012. Dance Parties, Lifestyle and Strategies for Ageing. In Ageing and Youth Cultures, ed. A. Bennett and P. Hodkinson, 95–104. London: Berg.Google Scholar
  11. Bennett, A., and P. Hodkinson. 2012. Ageing and Youth Cultures. London: Berg.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, A., and K. Kahn-Harris. 2004. After Subculture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennett, A., and R.A. Peterson. 2004. Music Scenes: Local, Translocal and Virtual. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Blackman, S. 2005. Youth Subcultural Theory: A Critical Engagement with the Concept, Its Origins and Politics, from the Chicago School to Postmodernism. Journal of Youth Studies 8 (1): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bourdieu, P. 1984. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Chaney, D. 2004. Fragmented Culture and Subcultures. In After Subculture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture, ed. A. Bennett and K. Kahn-Harris, 36–48. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Clarke, J., S. Hall, T. Jefferson, and B. Roberts. [1975] 2006. Subcultures, Cultures and Class. In Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain, 2nd ed., ed. S. Hall and T. Jefferson, 3–59. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Clarke, G. [1982] 2007. Defending Ski-jumpers: A Critique of Theories of Youth Sub-cultures. In CCCS Selected Working Papers, vol. 2, ed. A. Gray, J. Campbell, M. Erickson, S. Hanson, and H. Wood, 230–255. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Cobley, P. 1999. Leave the Capitol. In Punk Rock: So What? The Cultural Legacy of Punk, ed. R. Sabin, 170–185. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Cohen, A.K. 1955. Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, P. [1972] 1997. Subcultural Conflict and Working Class Community. In Rethinking the Youth Question: Education, Labour and Cultural Studies, ed. P. Cohen, 48–63. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Critcher, C. [1975] 2006. Structure, Culture, and Biographies. In Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain, Second Edition, ed. S. Hall and T. Jefferson, 139–144. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Cross, R. 2010. There is No Authority but Yourself: The Individual and the Collective in British Anarcho-Punk. Music and Politics 4 (2): 1–20.Google Scholar
  24. Crossley, N. 1996. Intersubjectivity: The Fabric of Social Becoming. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Crossley, N. 2008. Pretty Connected: The Social Network of the Early UK Punk Movement. Theory, Culture & Society 25 (6): 89–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dale, P. 2008. It Was Easy, It Was Cheap, so What? Reconsidering the DIY Principle of Punk and Indie Music. Popular Music History 3 (2): 171–193.Google Scholar
  27. Dale, P. 2012. Anyone Can Do It: Empowerment, Tradition and the Punk Underground. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  28. Davis, J. 2006. Growing Up Punk: Negotiating Aging Identity in a Local Music Scene. Symbolic Interaction 29 (1): 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Downes, J. 2012. The Expansion of Punk Rock: Riot Grrrl Challenges to Gender Power Relations in British Indie Music Subcultures. Women’s Studies 41 (2): 204–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dunn, K. 2011. Anarcho-Punk and Resistance in Everyday Life. Punk & Post-Punk 1 (2): 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunn, K.C. 2012. If It Ain’t Cheap, It Ain’t Punk: Walter Benjamin’s Progressive Cultural Production and DIY Punk Record Labels. Journal of Popular Music Studies 24 (2): 217–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fine, G.A., and S. Kleinman. 1979. Rethinking Subculture: An Interactionist Analysis. American Journal of Sociology 85 (1): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fogarty, M. 2012. “Each One Teach One”: B-Boying and Ageing. In Ageing and Youth Cultures, ed. A. Bennett and P. Hodkinson, 53–65. London: Berg.Google Scholar
  34. Giddens, A. 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  35. Giddens, A. 1994. Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  36. Giddens, A. 2000. The Third Way and Its Critics. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  37. Gillespie, A., and F. Cornish. 2010. Intersubjectivity: Towards a Dialogical Analysis. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 40 (1): 19–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gololobov, I. 2014. Krasnodar: Perpendicular Culture in the Biggest Village on Earth. In Punk in Russia: Cultural Mutation from the ‘Useless’ to the ‘Moronic’, ed. I. Gololobov, H. Pilkington, and Y.B. Steinholt, 99–142. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Gololobov, I., H. Pilkington, and Y.B. Steinholt. 2014. Punk in Russia: Cultural Mutation from the ‘Useless’ to the ‘Moronic’. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Goodman, P. 1960. Growing up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organized System. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  41. Gosling, T. 2004. “Not for Sale”: The Underground Network of Anarcho-Punk. In Music Scenes: Local, Translocal, and Virtual, ed. A. Bennett and R.A. Peterson, 168–186. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Haenfler, R. 2004. Rethinking Subcultural Resistance: Core Values of the Straight Edge Movement. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 33 (4): 406–436.Google Scholar
  43. Haenfler, R. 2006. Straight Edge: Clean-Living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change. New Brunswick, NH: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Haenfler, R. 2012 “More Than Xs on My Hands”: Older Straight Edgers and the Meaning of Style. In Ageing and Youth Cultures, ed A. Bennett and P. Hodkinson, 9–23. London: Berg.Google Scholar
  45. Hall, S., and T. Jefferson. [1975] 2006. Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain, 2nd ed. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Hannerz, U. 1992. Cultural Complexity: Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Harris, K. 2000. “Roots”? The Relationship Between the Global and the Local within the Extreme Metal Scene. Popular Music 19 (1): 13–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hebdige, D. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Heelas, P. 1996. Introduction: Detraditionalization and Its Rivals. In Detraditionalization: Critical Reflections on Authority and Identity, ed. P. Heelas, S. Lash, and P. Morris, 1–20. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  50. Hesmondhalgh, D. 2005. Subcultures, Scenes or Tribes? None of the Above. Journal of Youth Studies 8 (1): 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hodkinson, P. 2002. Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  52. Hodkinson, P. 2004. Translocal Connections in the Goth Scene. In Music Scenes: Local, Translocal and Virtual, ed. A. Bennett and R.A. Peterson, 131–148. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hodkinson, P. 2011. Ageing in a Spectacular “Youth Culture”: Continuity Change and Community Amongst Older Goths. The British Journal of Sociology 62 (2): 262–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hodkinson, P. 2012. The Collective Aging of a Goth Festival. In Ageing and Youth Cultures, ed. A. Bennett and P. Hodkinson, 133–145. London: Berg.Google Scholar
  55. Hollows, J., and K. Milestone. 1998. Welcome to Dreamsville: A History and Geography of Northern Soul. In The Place of Music, ed. A. Leyshon, D. Matless, and G. Revill, 83–103. New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Honneth, A. 1995. The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  57. Laing, D. 1985. One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Leblanc, L. 1999. Pretty in Punk: Girls’ Gender Resistance in a Boys’ Subculture. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Maffesoli, M. 1996. The Time of the Tribes: The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. Malbon, B. 1999. Clubbing: Dancing, Ecstasy and Vitality. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Marcus, G. 1989. Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the 20th Century. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  62. Massey, D. 1993. Power-Geometry and a Progressive Sense of Place. In Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change, ed. J. Bird, B. Curtis, T. Putnam, G. Robertson, and L. Tickner, 59–69. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. McRobbie, A. 1990. Settling Accounts with Subcultures: A Feminist Critique. In On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word, ed. S. Frith and A. Goodwin, 55–67. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. McRobbie, A., and J. Garber. [1975] 2006. Girls and Subcultures: An Exploration. In Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain, 2nd ed., ed. S. Hall and T. Jefferson, 177–188. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Mitchell, T. 1998. Australian Hip Hop as ‘Glocal’ Subculture. Available from http://www.snarl.org/youth/tonym2.pdf. [14/05/2015].
  66. Moore, R. 2004. Postmodernism and Punk Subculture: Cultures of Authenticity and Deconstruction. The Communication Review 7 (3): 305–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moore, R. 2010. Sells Like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis. London: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Muggleton, D. 2000. Inside Subculture: The Postmodern Meaning of Style. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  69. Muggleton, D., and R. Weinzierl. 2003. The Post-subcultures Reader. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  70. Nehring, N. 1993. Flowers in the Dustbin: Culture, Anarchy, and Postwar England. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. O’Connor, A. 2002. Local Scenes and Dangerous Crossroads: Punk and Theories of Cultural Hybridity. Popular Music 21 (2): 225–236.Google Scholar
  72. O’Connor, A. 2003. Punk Subculture in Mexico and the Anti-globalization Movement: A Report from the Front. New Political Science 25 (1): 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Connor, A. 2004. Punk and Globalization: Spain and Mexico. International Journal of Cultural Studies 7 (2): 175–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Connor, A. 2008. Punk Record Labels and the Struggle for Autonomy: The Emergence of DIY. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  75. O’Hara, C. 1999. The Philosophy of Punk: More Than Noise! Edinburgh: AK Press.Google Scholar
  76. Pilkington, H. 2004. Youth Strategies for Glocal Living: Space, Power and Communication in Everyday Cultural Practice. In After Subculture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture, ed. A. Bennett and K. Kahn-Harris, 119–134. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  77. Pilkington, H. 2012. Punk—But Not as We Know It: Punk in Post-socialist Space. Punk & Post-Punk 1 (3): 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pilkington, H. 2014a. Punk, But Not as We Know It: Rethinking Punk from a Post-socialist Perspective. In Punk in Russia: Cultural Mutation from the ‘Useless’ to the ‘Moronic’, ed. I. Gololobov, H. Pilkington, and Y.B. Steinholt, 1–21. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Pilkington, H. 2014b Vorkuta: A Live Scene in a “Rotting City”. In Punk in Russia: Cultural Mutation from the ‘Useless’ to the ‘Moronic’, ed. I. Gololobov, H. Pilkington, and Y.B. Steinholt, 143–195. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Pilkington, H., I. Gololobov, and Y.B. Steinholt. 2014. Conclusion. In Punk in Russia: Cultural Mutation from the ‘Useless’ to the ‘Moronic’, ed. I. Gololobov, H. Pilkington, and Y.B. Steinholt, 196–211. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Pilkington, H., and E. Omel’chenko. 2013. Regrounding Youth Cultural Theory (in Post Socialist Youth Cultural Practice). Sociology Compass, 7 (3): 208–224.Google Scholar
  82. Pries, L. 2005. Configurations of Geographic and Societal Spaces: A Sociological Proposal Between ‘Methodological Nationalism’ and the ‘Spaces of Flows’. Global Networks 5 (2): 167–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Redhead, S. 1990. The End-of-the-Century Party: Youth and Pop Towards 2000. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Robertson, R. 1995. Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity. In Global Modernities, ed. M.L. Featherstone, S. Lash, and R. Robertson, 25–44. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sabin, R. 1999. Introduction. In Punk Rock: So What?: The Cultural Legacy of Punk, ed. R. Sabin, 1–13. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Savage, J. 1991. England’s Dreaming: Sex Pistols, Punk Rock, and Beyond. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  87. Shank, B. 1994. Dissonant Identities: The Rock‘n’Roll Scene in Austin, Texas. Hanover, NH: Wesleyen University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Shildrick, T., and R. MacDonald. 2006. In Defence of Subculture: Young People, Leisure and Social Divisions. Journal of Youth Studies 9 (2): 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shils, E. 1975. Center and Periphery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  90. Smart, C. 2007. Personal Life: New Directions in Sociological Thinking. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  91. Stahl, G. 2004. It’s Like Canada Reduced’: Setting the Scene in Montreal. In After Subculture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture, ed. A. Bennett, and K. Kahn-Harris, 51–64. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steinholt, Y.B., I. Gololobov, and H. Pilkington. 2014. St. Petersburg: Big City—Small Scenes. In Punk in Russia: Cultural Mutation from the ‘Useless’ to the ‘Moronic’, ed. I. Gololobov, H. Pilkington, and Y.B. Steinholt, 49–98. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Straw, W. 1991. Systems of Articulation, Logics of Change: Communities and Scenes in Popular Music. Cultural Studies 5 (3): 368–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Straw, W. 2001. Scenes and Sensibilities. Public 22 (23): 245–257.Google Scholar
  95. Thompson, S. 2004. Punk Productions: Unfinished Business. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  96. Thornton, S. 1995. Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  97. Ventsel, A. 2008. Punx and Skins United: One Law for Us One Law for Them. The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 40 (57): 45–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wallach, J. 2008. Living the Punk Lifestyle in Jakarta. Ethnomusicology 52 (1): 98–116.Google Scholar
  99. Wallerstein, I. 1974. The Modern World-System. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  100. Wan, C. 2012. Shared Knowledge Matters: Culture as Intersubjective Representations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 6 (2): 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Webb, P. 2007. Exploring the Networked Worlds of Popular Music: Milieu Cultures. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  102. Whyte, W.F. [1943] 1955. Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  103. Widdicombe, S., and R. Wooffitt. 1990. “Being” Versus “Doing” Punk: On Achieving Authenticity as a Member. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 9 (4): 257–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Williams, J.P. 2006. Authentic Identities: Straightedge Subculture, Music, and the Internet. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 35 (2): 173–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Williams, J.P. 2011. Subcultural Theory: Traditions and Concepts. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  106. Willis, P. 1972. Pop Music and Youth Groups. PhD thesis, Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.Google Scholar
  107. Willis, P.E. 1977. Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Farnborough: Saxon House.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations