Advertisement

Emotional and Spiritual Knowledge

Chapter
Part of the Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning book series (IAKM, volume 5)

Abstract

Project Management is a rational construct based on rational knowledge and intelligence, and on the fundamental idea that any objective can be achieved if there is an algorithmic structure of activities and an adequate managerial process. However, any project is implemented by people and that means that their work cannot be reduced to only rationality and economics. Enterprise is more important than economics, and rational knowledge should be complemented by emotional and spiritual knowledge. The purpose of this chapter is to present the main concepts and ideas of emotional and spiritual knowledge and the way they integrate into Project Management. After explaining the role of metaphors in understanding the concept of knowledge, the chapter presents the basic ideas of emotional knowledge as the wordless expression of our body when interacts with the environment. Then, spirituality and spiritual knowledge are explained as an expression of understanding our existence and work necessity. Finally, the chapter introduces three practical examples of integrating emotional and spiritual knowledge in the managerial knowledge field.

Keywords

Knowledge Emotional knowledge Spiritual knowledge Energy metaphor 

References

  1. Andriessen, D. (2008). Stuff or love? How metaphors direct our efforts to manage knowledge in organizations. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 6(1), 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andriessen, D. (2011). Metaphors in knowledge management. System Research and Behavioral Science, 28(2), 133–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andriessen, D., & Boom, M. (2007, May). Asian and western intellectual capital in encounter. Paper presented at IC-Congress 2007, Inholland University of Applied Sciences, Haarlem.Google Scholar
  4. Argote, L. (2013). Organizational learning: Creating, retaining and transferring knowledge (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariely, D. (2010). Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  6. Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  7. Becerra-Fernandez, I., & Sabherwal, R. (2010). Knowledge management. System and processes. New York: M. E Sharpe.Google Scholar
  8. Benefiel, M. (2005). The second half of the journey: Spiritual leadership for organizational transformation. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 723–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benston, G. J., & Hartgraves, A. L. (2002). Enron: What happened and what we can learn from it. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 21, 105–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolisani, E., Borgo, S., & Oltramari, A. (2012). Knowledge as a measurable object in business contexts: A stock-and-flow approach. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 10(3), 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borgo, S., & Pozza, G. (2012). Knowledge objects: A formal construct for material, information and role dependences. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 10(3), 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Branson, R. (2011). Screw business as usual. London: Virgin Books.Google Scholar
  13. Bratianu, C. (2003). Antimanagement. Review of Management and Engineering Economics, 2(4), 7–15.Google Scholar
  14. Bratianu, C. (2009). The frontier of linearity in the intellectual capital metaphor. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(4), 415–424.Google Scholar
  15. Bratianu, C. (2011). Changing paradigm for knowledge metaphors from dynamics to thermodynamics. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 28(2), 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bratianu, C. (2013). The triple helix of the organizational knowledge. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 1(2), 207–220.Google Scholar
  17. Bratianu, C. (2015). Organizational knowledge dynamics: Managing knowledge creation, acquisition, sharing, and transformation. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  18. Bratianu, C., & Andriessen, D. (2008). Knowledge as energy: A metaphorical analysis. In D. Harorimana & D. Watkins (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th European conference on knowledge management (pp. 75–82). Reading: Academic.Google Scholar
  19. Burnes, B. (2009). Managing change A strategic approach to organizational dynamics (5th ed.). London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  20. Chatterjee, S. (2003). Enron’s incremental descent into bankruptcy: A strategic and organizational analysis. Long Range Planning, 36, 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daft, R. L. (2008). The leadership experience (4th ed.). London: Thomson South-Western.Google Scholar
  22. Dalai Lama. (1999). Ethics for the millennium. New York: Putman.Google Scholar
  23. Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge management in theory and practice. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  24. Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putman.Google Scholar
  25. Damasio, A. R. (1999). The feelings of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  26. Damasio, A. R. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  27. Damasio, A. R. (2012). Self comes to mind: Constructing the conscious brain. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  28. Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (2000). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  29. Descartes, R. (1997). Key philosophical writings. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions.Google Scholar
  30. Drucker, P. (2008). The age of discontinuity: Guidelines to our changing society. London: Transaction.Google Scholar
  31. Edvinsson, L. (2002). Corporate longitude: What you need to know to navigate the knowledge economy. London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  32. Fauconnier, G. (2001). Conceptual blending and analogy. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. N. Kokinov (Eds.), The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science (pp. 255–286). Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fauconnier, G., & Turner, M. (2002). The way we think: Conceptual blending and the mind’s hidden complexities. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Frith, C. (2007). Making up the mind: How the brain creates our mental world. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  35. Fry, W. L. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fry, W. L., Matherly, L. L., Whittington, J. L., & Winston, B. E. (2007). Spiritual leadership as an integrating paradigm for servant leadership. In S. Singh-Sengupta & D. Fields (Eds.), Integrating spirituality and organizational leadership. New Delhi: Macmillan India.Google Scholar
  37. Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. New York: Back Bay Books.Google Scholar
  38. Heagney, J. (2011). Fundamentals of project management (4th ed.). New York: AMACON.Google Scholar
  39. Hill D (2008) Emotionomics: Leveraging emotions for business success (Rev. ed.). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  40. Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Damasio, A. (2007). We feel, therefore we learn: The relevance of affective and social neuroscience to education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1(1), 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  42. Kaufman, S. F. (1994). The martial artist’s book of five rings: The definitive interpretation of Myiamoto Musashi’s classic book of strategy. Boston: Tuttle.Google Scholar
  43. Kerzner, H. R. (2013). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change. Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to the western thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  49. Lange, D., & Washburn, N. T. (2012). Understanding attributions of corporate social irresponsibility. Academic Management Review, 37(2), 300–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Le Doux, J. (1999). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. London: Phoenix.Google Scholar
  51. Le Doux, J. (2002). Emotion, memory, and the brain. Scientific American, 12, 62–71.Google Scholar
  52. Leistner, F. (2010). Mastering organizational knowledge flow: How to make knowledge sharing work. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  53. Leonard, D., & Sensiper, S. (1998). The role of tacit knowledge in group motivation. California Management Review, 40(3), 112–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lev, B. (2002). Where have all of Enron’s intangibles gone? Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 21, 31–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mintzberg, H. (2010). The problem is enterprise, not economics. Retrieved March 15, 2016, from http://www.Gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/we-are-not-human-resources/
  56. Mitroff, I., & Denton, E. A. (1999). A study of spirituality in the workplace. Sloan Management Review, 40(4), 83–92.Google Scholar
  57. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mlodinow, L. (2013). Subliminal: How your unconscious mind rules your behavior. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  59. Moser, K. S. (2000). Metaphor analysis in psychology—Method, theory, and fields of application. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2), 1–8.Google Scholar
  60. Moser, K. (2004). The role of metaphors in acquiring and transmitting knowledge. In M. Fisher, N. Boreham, & B. Nihan (Eds.), European perspectives on learning at work: The acquisition of work process knowledge. Luxembourg: Cedefop Reference Series.Google Scholar
  61. Nakagawara, C. (2004). The Japanese garden for the mind: The ‘bliss’ of paradise transcend. Standford Journal of East Asian Affairs, 4(2), 83–103.Google Scholar
  62. Neck, C. P., & Milliman, J. F. (1994). Thought self-leadership: Finding spiritual fulfillment in organizational life. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(6), 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nissen, M. E. (2006). Harnessing knowledge dynamics: Principled organizational knowing and learning. London: IRM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nonaka, I. (1991). The knowledge creating company. Harvard Business Review, 69, 96–104.Google Scholar
  65. Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of information. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., & Hirata, T. (2008). Managing flow: A process theory of the knowledge-based firm. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. O’Dell, C., & Hubert, C. (2011). The new edge in knowledge: How knowledge management is changing the way we do business. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  69. O’Rorke, P., & Ortony, A. (1994). Explaining emotions. Cognitive Science, 18(2), 283–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Oliver, G. (2013). A tenth anniversary assessment of Davenport & Prusak (1998/2000) working knowledge: Practitioner approaches to knowledge in organizations. Knowledge Management and Practice, 11(1), 10–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pessoa, L., & Pereira, M. G. (2013). Cognition—Emotion interactions: A review of the functional magnetic resonance imaging literature. In M. D. Robinson, E. R. Watkins, & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 55–68). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  72. Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York: Harper-Collins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pinker, S. (2008). The stuff of thought: Language as a window into human nature. New York: Pinguin Books.Google Scholar
  74. Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Robinson, M. D., Watkins, E. R., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2013). Cognition and emotion: An introduction. In M. D. Robinson, E. R. Watkins, & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 3–19). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  76. Russell, B. (1972). A history of western philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  77. Senge, P. (1999). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  78. Senge, P., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R. B., & Smith, B. (1994). The fifth discipline fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learning organization. London: Nicholas Brealey.Google Scholar
  79. Song, J., & Lee, K. (2014). The Samsung way: Transformational management strategies from the world leaders in innovation and design. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  80. Steen, G. (2011). The language of knowledge management: A linguistic approach to metaphor analysis. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 28(2), 181–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stewart, T. A. (1999). Intellectual capital: The new wealth of organizations. London: Nicholas Brealey.Google Scholar
  82. Wang, L., Malhotra, D., & Murnigham, J. K. (2011). Economics education and greed. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 10(4), 643–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zohar, D., & Marshall, I. (2000). SQ: Spiritual intelligence. The ultimate intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  84. Zohar, D., & Marshall, I. (2004). Spiritual capital: Wealth we can live by. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bucharest University of Economic StudiesBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations