Advertisement

Hierarchical Organizations and Glass Ceiling Effects

  • María Paz EspinosaEmail author
  • Eva Ferreira
Chapter

Abstract

We explore the effect of bias on glass ceiling effects in hierarchical organizations and show that the latter do not necessarily come from greater discrimination at the top levels of the hierarchy but from the dynamics of the selection process, the shape of the hierarchical organization and the distribution of abilities. These results are consistent with the existing empirical evidence, which has found glass ceiling effects in some contexts but not in others.

Keywords

Gender gap Glass ceiling Pareto distribution Weibull distribution 

JEL codes:

C73 J71 M51 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful for comments from Prof. Dr. Winfried Stute, the participants on the International Conference in Probability Theory and Statistics on Tbilisi, 2015 and an anonymous referee. Financial support from MINECO (ECO2015-64467-R and ECO2014-51914-P), the Basque Government (DEUI, IT-783-13) and UPV/EHU (UFI 11/46 BETS) is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Baxter, Janeen, and Erik Olin Wright, 2000. “The glass ceiling hypothesis: A comparative study of the United States, Sweden, and Australia”. Gender and Society 14(2): 275–294.Google Scholar
  2. Bertrand, Marianne, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz, 2010. “Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Financial and Corporate Sectors”. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2(3): 228–255.Google Scholar
  3. Espinosa, Maria Paz and Eva Ferreira, 2015. “Gender gap dynamics and glass ceilings”. Working paper, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU.Google Scholar
  4. Espinosa, Maria Paz, Eva Ferreira and Winfried Stute, 2016. “Discrimination, binomials and glass ceiling effects”. Springer, Proceedings in Mathematics&Statistics, Vol. 175.Google Scholar
  5. Ferreira, Eva and Winfried Stute, 2016. “Dynamic binomials with an application to gender gap analysis”. Journal of Applied Probability 53, 82–90.Google Scholar
  6. Fershtman, Chaim and Uri Gneezy. 2001. "Discrimination in a segmented society: An experimental approach". The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116: 351–77.Google Scholar
  7. Goldin, Claudia and Cecilia Rouse, 2000. "Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of Blind Auditions on Female Musicians". American Economic Review 90(4): 715–741.Google Scholar
  8. Jackson, Jerlando F. L., and Elizabeth M. O’Callaghan, 2009. "What Do We Know About Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research". Research in Higher Education 50:460–482.Google Scholar
  9. Moss-Racusin, Corinne A., John F. Dovidio, Victoria L. Brescoll, Mark J. Graham, and Jo Handelsman, 2012. "Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 109(41): 16474–16479.Google Scholar
  10. Reuben, Ernesto, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales, 2014. "How stereotypes impair women’s careers in science". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 111(12): 4403–4408.Google Scholar
  11. Smith, Ryan A., 2012. "Money, Benefits, and Power : A Test of the Glass Ceiling and Glass Escalator Hypotheses". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 639: 149–172.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Fundamentos Del Análisis Económico IIUniversity of the Basque CountryBilbaoSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Economía Aplicada III & BETSUniversity of the Basque CountryBilbaoSpain

Personalised recommendations