Advertisement

Observed Parenting in Families Exposed to Homelessness: Child and Parent Characteristics as Predictors of Response to the Early Risers Intervention

  • Kendal Holtrop
  • Timothy F. Piehler
  • Abigail H. Gewirtz
  • Gerald J. August
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)

Abstract

Efforts to support positive parenting among homeless families are critical for promoting the mental health and developmental needs of children exposed to homelessness. Psychosocial preventive interventions seeking to improve parenting practices and child outcomes can make an important contribution in this regard, yet further research is needed to investigate the effects of such programs. In particular, little is known about which subgroups are most likely to benefit from intervention programming. The purpose of this study was to identify which child and parent characteristics predict differential responses to the Early Risers intervention among formerly homeless families residing in supportive housing. Data were derived from a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial in which supportive housing sites were randomized to the Early Risers intervention condition or treatment as usual. Child behavior problems, parental depression, parenting self-efficacy, and parent–child attachment were each examined as moderators influencing change in observed ineffective discipline practices across four waves of longitudinal data. Multilevel latent growth modeling revealed significant interaction effects for both child behavior problems and parental depression. For parents in the intervention condition, those reporting more child behavior problems at baseline showed greater reductions in ineffective discipline over the course of the study than parents reporting less child behavior problems. Similarly, parents with higher initial levels of depression showed greater parenting improvements in response to the intervention condition than did less depressed parents. These findings could have important implications for targeting families most likely to benefit from intervention participation.

Keywords

Family homelessness Parenting interventions Parental depression Child behavior problems Multilevel growth modeling 

References

  1. Anderson, D. G., & Rayens, M. K. (2004). Factors influencing homelessness in women. Public Health Nursing, 21, 12–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1446.2004.21103.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleyard, K., & Osofsky, J. D. (2003). Parenting after trauma: Supporting parents and caregivers in the treatment of children impacted by violence. Infant Mental Health Journal, 24, 111–125. doi: 10.1002/imhj.10050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arangua, L., Andersen, R., & Gelberg, L. (2005). The health circumstances of homeless women in the United States. International Journal of Mental Health, 34, 62–92. doi: 10.1080/00207411.2005.11043398.Google Scholar
  4. Assemany, A. E., & McIntosh, D. E. (2002). Negative treatment outcomes of behavioral parent training programs. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 209–219. doi: 10.1002/pits.10032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. August, G. J., Realmuto, G. M., Hektner, J. M., & Bloomquist, M. L. (2001). An integrated components preventive intervention for aggressive elementary school children: The Early Risers program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 614–626. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.69.4.614.Google Scholar
  6. August, G. J., Realmuto, G. M., Winters, K. C., & Hektner, J. M. (2001). Prevention of adolescent drug abuse: Targeting high-risk children with a multifaceted intervention model—The Early Risers “Skills for Success” Program. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 10, 135–154. doi: 10.1017/S0962-1849(02)01005-3.Google Scholar
  7. August, G. J., Hektner, J. M., Egan, E. A., Realmuto, G. M., & Bloomquist, M. L. (2002). The Early Risers longitudinal prevention trial: Examination of 3-year outcomes in aggressive children with intent-to-treat and as-intended analyses. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, S27–S39. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.16.4S.S27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. August, G. J., Lee, S. S., Bloomquist, M. L., Realmuto, G. M., & Hektner, J. M. (2003). Dissemination of an evidence-based prevention innovation for aggressive children living in culturally diverse, urban neighborhoods: The Early Risers effectiveness study. Prevention Science, 4, 271–286. doi: 10.1023/A:1026072316380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baydar, N., Reid, M. J., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2003). The role of mental health factors and program engagement in the effectiveness of a preventive parenting program for Head Start mothers. Child Development, 74, 1433–1453. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00616.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berlin, L. J., Whiteside-Mansell, L., Roggman, L. A., Green, B. L., Robinson, J., & Spieker, S. (2011). Testing maternal depression and attachment style as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on parenting. Attachment & Human Development, 13, 49–67. doi: 10.1080/14616734.2010.488122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Leve, L. D., Laurent, H., Landsverk, J. A., & Reid, J. B. (2008). Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: Outcomes and mediation effects. Prevention Science, 9, 17–27. doi: 10.1007/s11121-007-0080-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Cutuli, J. J., & Herbers, J. E. (2014). Promoting resilience for children who experience family homelessness: Opportunities to encourage developmental competence. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 16, 113–139.Google Scholar
  13. DeGarmo, D. S., Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (2004). How do outcomes in a specified parent training intervention maintain or wane over time? Prevention Science, 5, 73–89. doi: 10.1023/B:PREV.0000023078.30191.e0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Derogatis, L. R. (2000). Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) 18: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.Google Scholar
  15. Duggan, A. K., Berlin, L. J., Cassidy, J., Burrell, L., & Tandon, S. D. (2009). Examining maternal depression and attachment insecurity as moderators of the impacts of home visiting for at-risk mothers and infants. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 788–799. doi: 10.1037/a0015709.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., Albert, A., Hops, H., Stoolmiller, M., & Muthen, B. (1997). Latent variable modeling of longitudinal and multilevel substance use data. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32, 275–318. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3203_3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Feinberg, M. E., & Kan, M. L. (2008). Establishing family foundations: Intervention effects on coparenting, parent/infant well-being, and parent-child relations. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 253–263. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.22.2.253.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (1999). Parenting through change: An effective prevention program for single mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 711–724. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.5.711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gardner, F., Burton, J., & Klimes, I. (2006). Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in the voluntary sector for reducing child conduct problems: Outcomes and mechanisms of change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1123–1132. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01668.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gardner, F., Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., & Whitaker, C. (2010). Who benefits and how does it work? Moderators and mediators of outcome in an effectiveness trial of a parenting intervention. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 568–580. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2010.486315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gewirtz, A. H. (2007). Promoting children’s mental health in family supportive housing: A community-university partnership for formerly homeless children and families. Journal of Primary Prevention, 28, 359–374. doi: 10.1007/s10935-007-0102-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gewirtz, A., & Taylor, T. (2009). Participation of homeless and abused women in a parent training program. In M. F. Hindsworth, & T. B. Lang (Eds.), Community participation and empowerment (pp. 97–114). Hauppage, NY: Nova.Google Scholar
  23. Gewirtz, A., Burkhart, K., Loehman, J., & Haukebo, B. (2014). Research on programs designed to support positive parenting. In M. E. Haskett, S. Perlman, & B. A. Cowan (Eds.), Supporting families experiencing homelessness (pp. 173–186). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gewirtz, A. H., DeGarmo, D. S., Lee, S., Morrell, N., & August, G. (2015). Two-year outcomes of the Early Risers prevention trial with formerly homeless families residing in supportive housing. Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 242–252. doi: 10.1037/fam0000066.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gewirtz, A. H., DeGarmo, D. S., Plowman, E. J., August, G., & Realmuto, G. (2009). Parenting, parental mental health, and child functioning in families residing in supportive housing. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79, 336–347. doi: 10.1037/a0016732.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Haskett, M. E., Loehman, J., & Burkhart, K. (2016). Parenting interventions in shelter settings: A qualitative systematic review of the literature. Child and Family Social Work, 21, 272–282. doi: 10.1111/cfs.12147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hektner, J. M., August, G. J., Bloomquist, M. L., Lee, S., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2014). A 10-year randomized controlled trial of the Early Risers conduct problems preventive intervention: Effects on externalizing and internalizing in late high school. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 355–360. doi: 10.1037/a0035678.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Herbers, J. E., & Cutuli, J. J. (2014). Programs for homeless children and youth: A critical review of evidence. In M. E. Haskett, S. Perlman, & B. A. Cowan (Eds.), Supporting families experiencing homelessness (pp. 187–207). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Holtrop, K., McNeil, S., & McWey, L. M. (2015). “It's a struggle but I can do it. I'm doing it for me and my kids”: The psychosocial characteristics and life experiences of at-risk homeless parents in transitional housing. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41, 177–191. doi: 10.1111/jmft.12050.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. van den Hoofdakker, B. J., Nauta, M. H., van der Veen-Mulders, L., Sytema, S., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Minderaa, R. B., & Hoekstra, P. J. (2010). Behavioral parent training as an adjunct to routine care in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Moderators of treatment response. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 317–326. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp060.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2006). Parenting Relationship Questionnaire manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson Inc..Google Scholar
  33. Kim, M. M., Ford, J. D., Howard, D. L., & Bradford, D. W. (2010). Assessing trauma, substance abuse, and mental health in a sample of homeless men. Health & Social Work, 35, 39–48. doi: 10.1093/hsw/35.1.39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed., ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kusché, C. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (1994). The PATHS curriculum. Seattle: Developmental Research Programs, Inc..Google Scholar
  36. Lundahl, B., Risser, H. J., & Lovejoy, M. C. (2006). A meta-analysis of parent training: Moderators and follow-up effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 86–104. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Marra, J. V., McCarthy, E., Lin, H. J., Ford, J., Rodis, E., & Frisman, L. K. (2009). Effects of social support and conflict on parenting among homeless mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79, 348–356. doi: 10.1037/a0017241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. McKee, L., Roland, E., Coffelt, N., Olson, A. L., Forehand, R., Massari, C., … Zens, M. S. (2007). Harsh discipline and child problem behaviors: The roles of positive parenting and gender. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 187–196. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-90770-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McNeil Smith, S., Holtrop, K., & Reynolds, J. (2015). Do positive parenting practices moderate parental mental health and child behavior among homeless families? Family Relations, 64, 606–620. doi: 10.1111/fare.12166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McTaggart, P., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Mediators and moderators of change in dysfunctional parenting in a school-based universal application of the Triple-P Positive Parenting Programme. Journal of Children's Services, 2, 4–17. doi: 10.1108/17466660200700002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Menting, A. T., Orobio de Castro, B., & Matthys, W. (2013). Effectiveness of the incredible years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 901–913. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Murry, V. M., Brown, P. A., Brody, G. H., Cutrona, C. E., & Simons, R. L. (2001). Racial discrimination as a moderator of the links among stress, maternal psychological functioning, and family relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 915–926. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00915.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide (Seventh ed., ). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  44. Nowak, C., & Heinrichs, N. (2008). A comprehensive meta-analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program using hierarchical linear modeling: Effectiveness and moderating variables. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11, 114–144. doi: 10.1007/s10567-008-0033-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Connor, E., Rodriguez, E., Cappella, E., Morris, J., & McClowry, S. (2012). Child disruptive behavior and parenting efficacy: A comparison of the effects of two models of insights. Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 555–572. doi: 10.1002/jcop.21482.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Perlman, S., Cowan, B., Gewirtz, A., Haskett, M., & Stokes, L. (2012). Promoting positive parenting in the context of homelessness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82, 402–412. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01158.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Piehler, T. F., Bloomquist, M. L., August, G. J., Gewirtz, A. H., Lee, S. S., & Lee, W. S. C. (2014). Executive functioning as a mediator of conduct problems prevention in children of formerly homeless families residing in temporary supportive housing: A parallel process latent growth modeling approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 681–692. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9816-y.Google Scholar
  48. Piehler, T. F., Lee, S. S., Bloomquist, M. L., & August, G. J. (2014). Moderating effects of parental well-being on parenting efficacy outcomes by intervention delivery mode of the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program. Journal of Primary Prevention, 35, 321–337. doi: 10.1007/s10935-014-0358-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Prelow, H. M., Weaver, S. R., Swenson, R. R., & Bowman, M. A. (2005). A preliminary investigation of the validity and reliability of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 in economically disadvantaged Latina American mothers. Journal of Community Psychology, 33, 139–155. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rayburn, N. R., Wenzel, S. L., Elliott, M. N., Hambarsoomians, K., Marshall, G. N., & Tucker, J. S. (2005). Trauma, depression, coping, and mental health service seeking among impoverished women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 667–677. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.4.667.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Reyno, S. M., & McGrath, P. J. (2006). Predictors of parent training efficacy for child externalizing behavior problems–a meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 99–111. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01544.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children (2nd ed., ). Circle Pines, MN: AGS.Google Scholar
  53. Robinson, J. L., & Emde, R. N. (2004). Mental health moderators of Early Head Start on parenting and child development: Maternal depression and relationship attitudes. Parenting: Science and Practice, 4, 73–97. doi: 10.1207/s15327922par0401_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Haggerty, K., & Ward, T. (1995). A controlled parenting skills outcome study examining individual difference and attendance effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 449–464. doi: 10.2307/353698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Torquati, J. C. (2002). Personal and social resources as predictors of parenting in homeless families. Journal of Family Issues, 23, 463–485. doi: 10.1177/0192513X02023004001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2012). The 2011 annual homeless assessment report to congress, revised. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  57. Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2008). Parenting self-efficacy and problem behavior in children at high risk for early conduct problems: The mediating role of maternal depression. Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 594–605. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2008.07.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Zlotnick, C., Tam, T., & Bradley, K. (2007). Impact of adulthood trauma on homeless mothers. Community Mental Health Journal, 43, 13–32. doi: 10.1007/s10597-006-9070-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kendal Holtrop
    • 1
  • Timothy F. Piehler
    • 2
  • Abigail H. Gewirtz
    • 3
  • Gerald J. August
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Family and Child SciencesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family Social ScienceUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  3. 3.Department of Family Social Science and Institute of Child DevelopmentUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations